Human Gene MRPL28 (ENST00000199706.13) from GENCODE V44
  Description: Homo sapiens mitochondrial ribosomal protein L28 (MRPL28), mRNA; nuclear gene for mitochondrial product. (from RefSeq NM_006428)
RefSeq Summary (NM_006428): Mammalian mitochondrial ribosomal proteins are encoded by nuclear genes and help in protein synthesis within the mitochondrion. Mitochondrial ribosomes (mitoribosomes) consist of a small 28S subunit and a large 39S subunit. They have an estimated 75% protein to rRNA composition compared to prokaryotic ribosomes, where this ratio is reversed. Another difference between mammalian mitoribosomes and prokaryotic ribosomes is that the latter contain a 5S rRNA. Among different species, the proteins comprising the mitoribosome differ greatly in sequence, and sometimes in biochemical properties, which prevents easy recognition by sequence homology. This gene encodes a 39S subunit protein, a part of which was originally isolated by its ability to recognize tyrosinase in an HLA-A24-restricted fashion. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008].
Gencode Transcript: ENST00000199706.13
Gencode Gene: ENSG00000086504.18
Transcript (Including UTRs)
   Position: hg38 chr16:366,969-370,538 Size: 3,570 Total Exon Count: 6 Strand: -
Coding Region
   Position: hg38 chr16:367,675-370,218 Size: 2,544 Coding Exon Count: 5 

Page IndexSequence and LinksUniProtKB CommentsPrimersCTDRNA-Seq Expression
Microarray ExpressionRNA StructureProtein StructureOther SpeciesGO AnnotationsmRNA Descriptions
PathwaysOther NamesMethods
Data last updated at UCSC: 2023-08-18 00:09:47

-  Sequence and Links to Tools and Databases
Genomic Sequence (chr16:366,969-370,538)mRNA (may differ from genome)Protein (256 aa)
Gene SorterGenome BrowserOther Species FASTAGene interactionsTable SchemaAlphaFold
BioGPSEnsemblEntrez GeneExonPrimerGencodeGeneCards
OMIMPubMedReactomeUniProtKBWikipediaBioGrid CRISPR DB

-  Comments and Description Text from UniProtKB
DESCRIPTION: RecName: Full=39S ribosomal protein L28, mitochondrial; Short=L28mt; Short=MRP-L28; AltName: Full=Melanoma antigen p15; AltName: Full=Melanoma-associated antigen recognized by T-lymphocytes; Flags: Precursor;
SUBUNIT: Interacts with OXA1L (By similarity).
TISSUE SPECIFICITY: Found in a variety of normal tissues including spleen, testes, thymus, liver, kidney, brain, adrenal, lung and retinal tissue.
MISCELLANEOUS: Potentially represents an important therapeutic reagent for HLA-A24 patients. This antigen is recognized by tumor- infiltrating lymphocyte (TIL) 1290 in the context of HLA-A24.
SIMILARITY: Belongs to the ribosomal protein L28P family.
SEQUENCE CAUTION: Sequence=AAC50181.1; Type=Erroneous initiation; Sequence=AAK61226.1; Type=Erroneous gene model prediction;

-  Primer design for this transcript

Primer3Plus can design qPCR Primers that straddle exon-exon-junctions, which amplify only cDNA, not genomic DNA.
Click here to load the transcript sequence and exon structure into Primer3Plus

Exonprimer can design one pair of Sanger sequencing primers around every exon, located in non-genic sequence.
Click here to open Exonprimer with this transcript

To design primers for a non-coding sequence, zoom to a region of interest and select from the drop-down menu: View > In External Tools > Primer3

-  Comparative Toxicogenomics Database (CTD)
  The following chemicals interact with this gene           more ... click here to view the complete list

-  RNA-Seq Expression Data from GTEx (53 Tissues, 570 Donors)
  Highest median expression: 66.90 RPKM in Testis
Total median expression: 1525.01 RPKM

View in GTEx track of Genome Browser    View at GTEx portal     View GTEx Body Map

+  Microarray Expression Data
  Press "+" in the title bar above to open this section.

-  mRNA Secondary Structure of 3' and 5' UTRs
RegionFold EnergyBasesEnergy/Base
Display As
5' UTR -13.8047-0.294 Picture PostScript Text
3' UTR -272.00706-0.385 Picture PostScript Text

The RNAfold program from the Vienna RNA Package is used to perform the secondary structure predictions and folding calculations. The estimated folding energy is in kcal/mol. The more negative the energy, the more secondary structure the RNA is likely to have.

-  Protein Domain and Structure Information
  InterPro Domains: Graphical view of domain structure
IPR026569 - Ribo_L28/L24

ModBase Predicted Comparative 3D Structure on Q13084
The pictures above may be empty if there is no ModBase structure for the protein. The ModBase structure frequently covers just a fragment of the protein. You may be asked to log onto ModBase the first time you click on the pictures. It is simplest after logging in to just click on the picture again to get to the specific info on that model.

-  Orthologous Genes in Other Species
  Orthologies between human, mouse, and rat are computed by taking the best BLASTP hit, and filtering out non-syntenic hits. For more distant species reciprocal-best BLASTP hits are used. Note that the absence of an ortholog in the table below may reflect incomplete annotations in the other species rather than a true absence of the orthologous gene.
MouseRatZebrafishD. melanogasterC. elegansS. cerevisiae
Genome BrowserGenome BrowserNo orthologNo orthologNo orthologNo ortholog
Gene Details     
Gene Sorter     
Protein SequenceProtein Sequence    

-  Gene Ontology (GO) Annotations with Structured Vocabulary
  Molecular Function:
GO:0003723 RNA binding
GO:0003735 structural constituent of ribosome
GO:0005515 protein binding

Biological Process:
GO:0006412 translation
GO:0070125 mitochondrial translational elongation
GO:0070126 mitochondrial translational termination

Cellular Component:
GO:0005739 mitochondrion
GO:0005743 mitochondrial inner membrane
GO:0005761 mitochondrial ribosome
GO:0005762 mitochondrial large ribosomal subunit
GO:0005829 cytosol
GO:0005840 ribosome

-  Descriptions from all associated GenBank mRNAs
  BC000990 - Homo sapiens mitochondrial ribosomal protein L28, mRNA (cDNA clone MGC:5323 IMAGE:2900534), complete cds.
BX647501 - Homo sapiens mRNA; cDNA DKFZp686N05154 (from clone DKFZp686N05154).
AK096844 - Homo sapiens cDNA FLJ39525 fis, clone PUAEN2002758.
U19796 - Human melanoma antigen p15 mRNA, complete cds.
BC013829 - Homo sapiens mitochondrial ribosomal protein L28, mRNA (cDNA clone IMAGE:4149138).
AK226042 - Homo sapiens mRNA for 39S ribosomal protein L28, mitochondrial precursor variant, clone: FCC101D08.
BC000507 - Homo sapiens mitochondrial ribosomal protein L28, mRNA (cDNA clone MGC:8499 IMAGE:2822176), complete cds.
JD464713 - Sequence 445737 from Patent EP1572962.
JD472050 - Sequence 453074 from Patent EP1572962.
JD421314 - Sequence 402338 from Patent EP1572962.
JD403955 - Sequence 384979 from Patent EP1572962.
JD166862 - Sequence 147886 from Patent EP1572962.
JD375936 - Sequence 356960 from Patent EP1572962.
CU674488 - Synthetic construct Homo sapiens gateway clone IMAGE:100016902 5' read MRPL28 mRNA.
HQ447132 - Synthetic construct Homo sapiens clone IMAGE:100070420; CCSB000027_01 mitochondrial ribosomal protein L28 (MRPL28) gene, encodes complete protein.
KJ898245 - Synthetic construct Homo sapiens clone ccsbBroadEn_07639 MRPL28 gene, encodes complete protein.
KJ898246 - Synthetic construct Homo sapiens clone ccsbBroadEn_07640 MRPL28 gene, encodes complete protein.
AK315180 - Homo sapiens cDNA, FLJ96159, highly similar to Homo sapiens mitochondrial ribosomal protein L28 (MRPL28), nucleargene encoding mitochondrial protein, mRNA.
BT009857 - Homo sapiens mitochondrial ribosomal protein L28 mRNA, complete cds.
CR541751 - Homo sapiens full open reading frame cDNA clone RZPDo834H0929D for gene MRPL28, mitochondrial ribosomal protein L28; complete cds, without stopcodon.
JD445794 - Sequence 426818 from Patent EP1572962.

-  Biochemical and Signaling Pathways
  Reactome (by CSHL, EBI, and GO)

Protein Q13084 (Reactome details) participates in the following event(s):

R-HSA-5389839 39S subunit binds 28S subunit:mRNA:fMet-tRNA
R-HSA-5419273 Hydrolysis of GTP and dissociation of 28S and 39S subunits
R-HSA-5389848 TUFM:GTP:aminoacyl-tRNA binds 55S ribosome:mRNA:fMet-tRNA
R-HSA-5389857 Peptide transfer from P-site to A-site (peptide bond formation)
R-HSA-5389842 TUFM hydrolyzes GTP and TUFM:GDP dissociates from 55S ribosome
R-HSA-5419261 55S ribosome with peptidyl-tRNA in A site binds GFM1:GTP
R-HSA-5419281 MRRF binds 55S ribosome:mRNA:tRNA
R-HSA-5419279 Translocation of peptidyl-tRNA from A-site to P-site (and translocation of 55S ribosome by 3 bases along mRNA)
R-HSA-5419264 MTRF1L (MTRF1a) or ICT1 binds stop codon in 55S ribosome:mRNA:peptidyl-tRNA
R-HSA-5419277 GFM2:GTP binds 55S ribosome:mRNA:tRNA:MRRF releasing mRNA and tRNA
R-HSA-5368286 Mitochondrial translation initiation
R-HSA-5419276 Mitochondrial translation termination
R-HSA-5368287 Mitochondrial translation
R-HSA-5389840 Mitochondrial translation elongation
R-HSA-72766 Translation
R-HSA-392499 Metabolism of proteins

-  Other Names for This Gene
  Alternate Gene Symbols: B2RCM4, D3DU46, ENST00000199706.1, ENST00000199706.10, ENST00000199706.11, ENST00000199706.12, ENST00000199706.2, ENST00000199706.3, ENST00000199706.4, ENST00000199706.5, ENST00000199706.6, ENST00000199706.7, ENST00000199706.8, ENST00000199706.9, MAAT1, NM_006428, Q13084, Q4TT39, Q96S26, Q9BQD8, Q9BR04, RM28_HUMAN, uc002cgs.1, uc002cgs.2, uc002cgs.3, uc002cgs.4
UCSC ID: ENST00000199706.13
RefSeq Accession: NM_006428
Protein: Q13084 (aka RM28_HUMAN)
CCDS: CCDS32349.1

-  Methods, Credits, and Use Restrictions
  Click here for details on how this gene model was made and data restrictions if any.