Human Gene CYGB (ENST00000293230.10) from GENCODE V44
  Description: Homo sapiens cytoglobin (CYGB), mRNA. (from RefSeq NM_134268)
RefSeq Summary (NM_134268): This gene encodes a globin protein found in vertebrate cells. The encoded protein is described as a hexacoordinate hemoglobin which binds ligand differently from the pentacoordinate hemoglobins involved in oxygen transport, and may be involved in protection during oxidative stress. This gene is located on chromosome 17 in the same region as a retinal gene which is mutated in progressive rod-cone degeneration, but in the opposite orientation. [provided by RefSeq, Jan 2012].
Gencode Transcript: ENST00000293230.10
Gencode Gene: ENSG00000161544.10
Transcript (Including UTRs)
   Position: hg38 chr17:76,527,356-76,537,709 Size: 10,354 Total Exon Count: 4 Strand: -
Coding Region
   Position: hg38 chr17:76,528,578-76,537,542 Size: 8,965 Coding Exon Count: 4 

Page IndexSequence and LinksUniProtKB CommentsPrimersMalaCardsCTD
RNA-Seq ExpressionMicroarray ExpressionRNA StructureProtein StructureOther SpeciesGO Annotations
mRNA DescriptionsPathwaysOther NamesMethods
Data last updated at UCSC: 2023-08-18 00:09:47

-  Sequence and Links to Tools and Databases
Genomic Sequence (chr17:76,527,356-76,537,709)mRNA (may differ from genome)Protein (190 aa)
Gene SorterGenome BrowserOther Species FASTAGene interactionsTable SchemaAlphaFold
BioGPSEnsemblEntrez GeneExonPrimerGencodeGeneCards
OMIMPubMedReactomeUniProtKBWikipediaBioGrid CRISPR DB

-  Comments and Description Text from UniProtKB
DESCRIPTION: RecName: Full=Cytoglobin; AltName: Full=Histoglobin; Short=HGb; AltName: Full=Stellate cell activation-associated protein;
FUNCTION: May have a protective function during conditions of oxidative stress. May be involved in intracellular oxygen storage or transfer.
SUBUNIT: Homodimer; disulfide-linked.
SUBCELLULAR LOCATION: Cytoplasm (By similarity).
TISSUE SPECIFICITY: Ubiquitously expressed. Highest expression in heart, stomach, bladder and small intestine.
SIMILARITY: Belongs to the globin family.

-  Primer design for this transcript

Primer3Plus can design qPCR Primers that straddle exon-exon-junctions, which amplify only cDNA, not genomic DNA.
Click here to load the transcript sequence and exon structure into Primer3Plus

Exonprimer can design one pair of Sanger sequencing primers around every exon, located in non-genic sequence.
Click here to open Exonprimer with this transcript

To design primers for a non-coding sequence, zoom to a region of interest and select from the drop-down menu: View > In External Tools > Primer3

-  MalaCards Disease Associations
  MalaCards Gene Search: CYGB
Diseases sorted by gene-association score: ancylostomiasis (1)

-  Comparative Toxicogenomics Database (CTD)
  The following chemicals interact with this gene           more ... click here to view the complete list

-  RNA-Seq Expression Data from GTEx (53 Tissues, 570 Donors)
  Highest median expression: 27.09 RPKM in Adipose - Subcutaneous
Total median expression: 347.39 RPKM

View in GTEx track of Genome Browser    View at GTEx portal     View GTEx Body Map

+  Microarray Expression Data
  Press "+" in the title bar above to open this section.

-  mRNA Secondary Structure of 3' and 5' UTRs
RegionFold EnergyBasesEnergy/Base
Display As
5' UTR -61.10167-0.366 Picture PostScript Text
3' UTR -490.401222-0.401 Picture PostScript Text

The RNAfold program from the Vienna RNA Package is used to perform the secondary structure predictions and folding calculations. The estimated folding energy is in kcal/mol. The more negative the energy, the more secondary structure the RNA is likely to have.

-  Protein Domain and Structure Information
  InterPro Domains: Graphical view of domain structure
IPR000971 - Globin
IPR009050 - Globin-like
IPR012292 - Globin_dom
IPR013314 - Globin_lamprey/hagfish

Pfam Domains:
PF00042 - Globin

Protein Data Bank (PDB) 3-D Structure
MuPIT help
1UMO - X-ray MuPIT 1URV - X-ray MuPIT 1URY - X-ray MuPIT 1UT0 - X-ray MuPIT 1UX9 - X-ray MuPIT 1V5H - X-ray MuPIT 2DC3 - X-ray MuPIT 3AG0 - X-ray MuPIT

ModBase Predicted Comparative 3D Structure on Q8WWM9
The pictures above may be empty if there is no ModBase structure for the protein. The ModBase structure frequently covers just a fragment of the protein. You may be asked to log onto ModBase the first time you click on the pictures. It is simplest after logging in to just click on the picture again to get to the specific info on that model.

-  Orthologous Genes in Other Species
  Orthologies between human, mouse, and rat are computed by taking the best BLASTP hit, and filtering out non-syntenic hits. For more distant species reciprocal-best BLASTP hits are used. Note that the absence of an ortholog in the table below may reflect incomplete annotations in the other species rather than a true absence of the orthologous gene.
MouseRatZebrafishD. melanogasterC. elegansS. cerevisiae
Genome BrowserGenome BrowserNo orthologGenome BrowserGenome BrowserNo ortholog
Gene Details     
Gene Sorter     
Protein SequenceProtein SequenceProtein SequenceProtein SequenceProtein Sequence 

-  Gene Ontology (GO) Annotations with Structured Vocabulary
  Molecular Function:
GO:0004096 catalase activity
GO:0004601 peroxidase activity
GO:0005344 oxygen transporter activity
GO:0005506 iron ion binding
GO:0005515 protein binding
GO:0008941 nitric oxide dioxygenase activity
GO:0019825 oxygen binding
GO:0020037 heme binding
GO:0046872 metal ion binding
GO:0047888 fatty acid peroxidase activity

Biological Process:
GO:0001666 response to hypoxia
GO:0006979 response to oxidative stress
GO:0010764 negative regulation of fibroblast migration
GO:0015671 oxygen transport
GO:0019395 fatty acid oxidation
GO:0032966 negative regulation of collagen biosynthetic process
GO:0050999 regulation of nitric-oxide synthase activity
GO:0098869 cellular oxidant detoxification
GO:2000490 negative regulation of hepatic stellate cell activation

Cellular Component:
GO:0005737 cytoplasm
GO:0005829 cytosol
GO:0016607 nuclear speck
GO:0043005 neuron projection
GO:0043025 neuronal cell body

-  Descriptions from all associated GenBank mRNAs
  BX647425 - Homo sapiens mRNA; cDNA DKFZp686E0588 (from clone DKFZp686E0588).
BC029798 - Homo sapiens cytoglobin, mRNA (cDNA clone MGC:34702 IMAGE:5193583), complete cds.
AK098057 - Homo sapiens cDNA FLJ40738 fis, clone TKIDN2004185, weakly similar to GLOBIN.
AB057769 - Homo sapiens stap mRNA for stellate cell activation-associated protein, complete cds.
AJ315162 - Homo sapiens mRNA for cytoglobin (CYGB gene).
KJ900003 - Synthetic construct Homo sapiens clone ccsbBroadEn_09397 CYGB gene, encodes complete protein.
JD444492 - Sequence 425516 from Patent EP1572962.
JD426041 - Sequence 407065 from Patent EP1572962.
JD038545 - Sequence 19569 from Patent EP1572962.
JD360930 - Sequence 341954 from Patent EP1572962.
JD405990 - Sequence 387014 from Patent EP1572962.

-  Biochemical and Signaling Pathways
  Reactome (by CSHL, EBI, and GO)

Protein Q8WWM9 (Reactome details) participates in the following event(s):

R-HSA-5340214 CYGB binds O2
R-HSA-5340226 CYGB dioxygenates NO
R-HSA-8982617 CYGB:O2 dissociates
R-HSA-203615 eNOS activation
R-HSA-8981607 Intracellular oxygen transport
R-HSA-203765 eNOS activation and regulation
R-HSA-382551 Transport of small molecules
R-HSA-202131 Metabolism of nitric oxide
R-HSA-1430728 Metabolism

-  Other Names for This Gene
  Alternate Gene Symbols: CYGB_HUMAN, ENST00000293230.1, ENST00000293230.2, ENST00000293230.3, ENST00000293230.4, ENST00000293230.5, ENST00000293230.6, ENST00000293230.7, ENST00000293230.8, ENST00000293230.9, NM_134268, Q541Y7, Q8N2X5, Q8WWM9, STAP, uc002jru.1, uc002jru.2, uc002jru.3, uc002jru.4
UCSC ID: ENST00000293230.10
RefSeq Accession: NM_134268
Protein: Q8WWM9 (aka CYGB_HUMAN)
CCDS: CCDS11746.1

-  Methods, Credits, and Use Restrictions
  Click here for details on how this gene model was made and data restrictions if any.