Human Gene ADCY2 (ENST00000338316.9) from GENCODE V44
  Description: Homo sapiens adenylate cyclase 2 (ADCY2), mRNA. (from RefSeq NM_020546)
RefSeq Summary (NM_020546): This gene encodes a member of the family of adenylate cyclases, which are membrane-associated enzymes that catalyze the formation of the secondary messenger cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP). This enzyme is insensitive to Ca(2+)/calmodulin, and is stimulated by the G protein beta and gamma subunit complex. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008].
Gencode Transcript: ENST00000338316.9
Gencode Gene: ENSG00000078295.17
Transcript (Including UTRs)
   Position: hg38 chr5:7,396,138-7,830,081 Size: 433,944 Total Exon Count: 25 Strand: +
Coding Region
   Position: hg38 chr5:7,396,297-7,826,871 Size: 430,575 Coding Exon Count: 25 

Page IndexSequence and LinksUniProtKB CommentsPrimersCTDRNA-Seq Expression
Microarray ExpressionRNA StructureProtein StructureOther SpeciesGO AnnotationsmRNA Descriptions
PathwaysOther NamesMethods
Data last updated at UCSC: 2023-08-18 00:09:47

-  Sequence and Links to Tools and Databases
Genomic Sequence (chr5:7,396,138-7,830,081)mRNA (may differ from genome)Protein (1091 aa)
Gene SorterGenome BrowserOther Species FASTAGene interactionsTable SchemaAlphaFold
BioGPSEnsemblEntrez GeneExonPrimerGencodeGeneCards

-  Comments and Description Text from UniProtKB
DESCRIPTION: RecName: Full=Adenylate cyclase type 2; EC=; AltName: Full=ATP pyrophosphate-lyase 2; AltName: Full=Adenylate cyclase type II; AltName: Full=Adenylyl cyclase 2;
FUNCTION: This is a membrane-bound, calmodulin-insensitive adenylyl cyclase.
CATALYTIC ACTIVITY: ATP = 3',5'-cyclic AMP + diphosphate.
COFACTOR: Binds 2 magnesium ions per subunit (By similarity).
ENZYME REGULATION: Insensitive to calcium/calmodulin. Stimulated by the G protein beta and gamma subunit complex (By similarity). Phosphorylation by RAF1 results in its activation.
SUBUNIT: Interacts with RAF1.
SUBCELLULAR LOCATION: Membrane; Multi-pass membrane protein.
TISSUE SPECIFICITY: Expressed in brain.
PTM: Phosphorylated by RAF1.
SIMILARITY: Belongs to the adenylyl cyclase class-4/guanylyl cyclase family.
SIMILARITY: Contains 2 guanylate cyclase domains.

-  Primer design for this transcript

Primer3Plus can design qPCR Primers that straddle exon-exon-junctions, which amplify only cDNA, not genomic DNA.
Click here to load the transcript sequence and exon structure into Primer3Plus

Exonprimer can design one pair of Sanger sequencing primers around every exon, located in non-genic sequence.
Click here to open Exonprimer with this transcript

To design primers for a non-coding sequence, zoom to a region of interest and select from the drop-down menu: View > In External Tools > Primer3

-  Comparative Toxicogenomics Database (CTD)
  The following chemicals interact with this gene           more ... click here to view the complete list

-  RNA-Seq Expression Data from GTEx (53 Tissues, 570 Donors)
  Highest median expression: 18.72 RPKM in Brain - Anterior cingulate cortex (BA24)
Total median expression: 191.82 RPKM

View in GTEx track of Genome Browser    View at GTEx portal     View GTEx Body Map

+  Microarray Expression Data
  Press "+" in the title bar above to open this section.

-  mRNA Secondary Structure of 3' and 5' UTRs
RegionFold EnergyBasesEnergy/Base
Display As
5' UTR -105.90159-0.666 Picture PostScript Text
3' UTR -937.303210-0.292 Picture PostScript Text

The RNAfold program from the Vienna RNA Package is used to perform the secondary structure predictions and folding calculations. The estimated folding energy is in kcal/mol. The more negative the energy, the more secondary structure the RNA is likely to have.

-  Protein Domain and Structure Information
  InterPro Domains: Graphical view of domain structure
IPR001054 - A/G_cyclase
IPR018297 - A/G_cyclase_CS
IPR009398 - Adenylate_cyclase-like

Pfam Domains:
PF06327 - Domain of Unknown Function (DUF1053)
PF00211 - Adenylate and Guanylate cyclase catalytic domain

ModBase Predicted Comparative 3D Structure on Q08462
The pictures above may be empty if there is no ModBase structure for the protein. The ModBase structure frequently covers just a fragment of the protein. You may be asked to log onto ModBase the first time you click on the pictures. It is simplest after logging in to just click on the picture again to get to the specific info on that model.

-  Orthologous Genes in Other Species
  Orthologies between human, mouse, and rat are computed by taking the best BLASTP hit, and filtering out non-syntenic hits. For more distant species reciprocal-best BLASTP hits are used. Note that the absence of an ortholog in the table below may reflect incomplete annotations in the other species rather than a true absence of the orthologous gene.
MouseRatZebrafishD. melanogasterC. elegansS. cerevisiae
Genome BrowserGenome BrowserGenome BrowserNo orthologNo orthologNo ortholog
Gene Details     
Gene Sorter     
Protein SequenceProtein SequenceProtein Sequence   

-  Gene Ontology (GO) Annotations with Structured Vocabulary
  Molecular Function:
GO:0000166 nucleotide binding
GO:0000287 magnesium ion binding
GO:0004016 adenylate cyclase activity
GO:0004383 guanylate cyclase activity
GO:0005524 ATP binding
GO:0008179 adenylate cyclase binding
GO:0016829 lyase activity
GO:0016849 phosphorus-oxygen lyase activity
GO:0030145 manganese ion binding
GO:0046872 metal ion binding
GO:0046982 protein heterodimerization activity

Biological Process:
GO:0003091 renal water homeostasis
GO:0006171 cAMP biosynthetic process
GO:0006182 cGMP biosynthetic process
GO:0007165 signal transduction
GO:0007186 G-protein coupled receptor signaling pathway
GO:0007188 adenylate cyclase-modulating G-protein coupled receptor signaling pathway
GO:0007189 adenylate cyclase-activating G-protein coupled receptor signaling pathway
GO:0007193 adenylate cyclase-inhibiting G-protein coupled receptor signaling pathway
GO:0009190 cyclic nucleotide biosynthetic process
GO:0019933 cAMP-mediated signaling
GO:0035556 intracellular signal transduction
GO:0071377 cellular response to glucagon stimulus
GO:1904322 cellular response to forskolin

Cellular Component:
GO:0005622 intracellular
GO:0005737 cytoplasm
GO:0005886 plasma membrane
GO:0005887 integral component of plasma membrane
GO:0008074 guanylate cyclase complex, soluble
GO:0016020 membrane
GO:0016021 integral component of membrane
GO:0030425 dendrite
GO:0045121 membrane raft

-  Descriptions from all associated GenBank mRNAs
  AF410885 - Homo sapiens adenylyl cyclase type II mRNA, complete cds.
AK127036 - Homo sapiens cDNA FLJ45092 fis, clone BRAWH3029806, highly similar to Adenylate cyclase, type II (EC
KJ896378 - Synthetic construct Homo sapiens clone ccsbBroadEn_05772 ADCY2 gene, encodes complete protein.
BC111743 - Homo sapiens adenylate cyclase 2 (brain), mRNA (cDNA clone MGC:133314 IMAGE:40038765), complete cds.
AK304041 - Homo sapiens cDNA FLJ61534 complete cds, highly similar to Adenylate cyclase type 2 (EC
AK299775 - Homo sapiens cDNA FLJ54510 complete cds, highly similar to Adenylate cyclase type 2 (EC
AK123013 - Homo sapiens cDNA FLJ16822 fis, clone TRACH3030111, highly similar to Adenylate cyclase type 2 (EC
AB028983 - Homo sapiens mRNA for KIAA1060 protein, partial cds.
AK294555 - Homo sapiens cDNA FLJ58757 complete cds, highly similar to Adenylate cyclase type 2 (EC
AK295531 - Homo sapiens cDNA FLJ60265 complete cds, highly similar to Adenylate cyclase type 2 (EC
L21993 - Human adenylyl cyclase mRNA, 3' end of cds.
X74210 - H.sapiens mRNA for adenylyl cyclase.
AF070583 - Homo sapiens clone 24648 adenylyl cyclase mRNA, partial cds.
AK307474 - Homo sapiens cDNA, FLJ97422.
CR749634 - Homo sapiens mRNA; cDNA DKFZp686J099 (from clone DKFZp686J099).
JD297563 - Sequence 278587 from Patent EP1572962.
JD316449 - Sequence 297473 from Patent EP1572962.
JD101758 - Sequence 82782 from Patent EP1572962.
JD527664 - Sequence 508688 from Patent EP1572962.
JD565887 - Sequence 546911 from Patent EP1572962.
JD500840 - Sequence 481864 from Patent EP1572962.
JD522899 - Sequence 503923 from Patent EP1572962.
JD454815 - Sequence 435839 from Patent EP1572962.
JD547915 - Sequence 528939 from Patent EP1572962.
JD186744 - Sequence 167768 from Patent EP1572962.
JD037366 - Sequence 18390 from Patent EP1572962.
JD236369 - Sequence 217393 from Patent EP1572962.
JD506697 - Sequence 487721 from Patent EP1572962.
JD285627 - Sequence 266651 from Patent EP1572962.
JD095979 - Sequence 77003 from Patent EP1572962.
JD195169 - Sequence 176193 from Patent EP1572962.
JD502578 - Sequence 483602 from Patent EP1572962.
JD288463 - Sequence 269487 from Patent EP1572962.
JD100797 - Sequence 81821 from Patent EP1572962.
JD310827 - Sequence 291851 from Patent EP1572962.
JD359842 - Sequence 340866 from Patent EP1572962.
JD348068 - Sequence 329092 from Patent EP1572962.
JD240186 - Sequence 221210 from Patent EP1572962.
JD332118 - Sequence 313142 from Patent EP1572962.
JD494912 - Sequence 475936 from Patent EP1572962.
JD290017 - Sequence 271041 from Patent EP1572962.
JD260505 - Sequence 241529 from Patent EP1572962.
JD267303 - Sequence 248327 from Patent EP1572962.
JD300740 - Sequence 281764 from Patent EP1572962.
JD073374 - Sequence 54398 from Patent EP1572962.
JD483153 - Sequence 464177 from Patent EP1572962.
JD181385 - Sequence 162409 from Patent EP1572962.
JD455448 - Sequence 436472 from Patent EP1572962.
JD500484 - Sequence 481508 from Patent EP1572962.
JD301394 - Sequence 282418 from Patent EP1572962.
JD137210 - Sequence 118234 from Patent EP1572962.
JD285371 - Sequence 266395 from Patent EP1572962.
JD070710 - Sequence 51734 from Patent EP1572962.
JD221336 - Sequence 202360 from Patent EP1572962.
JD376118 - Sequence 357142 from Patent EP1572962.
JD300946 - Sequence 281970 from Patent EP1572962.
JD481360 - Sequence 462384 from Patent EP1572962.
JD138722 - Sequence 119746 from Patent EP1572962.
JD428968 - Sequence 409992 from Patent EP1572962.
JD284676 - Sequence 265700 from Patent EP1572962.
JD310152 - Sequence 291176 from Patent EP1572962.
JD558783 - Sequence 539807 from Patent EP1572962.
JD442984 - Sequence 424008 from Patent EP1572962.
JD118501 - Sequence 99525 from Patent EP1572962.
JD118500 - Sequence 99524 from Patent EP1572962.
JD482651 - Sequence 463675 from Patent EP1572962.
JD208266 - Sequence 189290 from Patent EP1572962.
JD507908 - Sequence 488932 from Patent EP1572962.
JD082667 - Sequence 63691 from Patent EP1572962.
JD058304 - Sequence 39328 from Patent EP1572962.
JD144135 - Sequence 125159 from Patent EP1572962.
JD090429 - Sequence 71453 from Patent EP1572962.
JD282203 - Sequence 263227 from Patent EP1572962.
JD194850 - Sequence 175874 from Patent EP1572962.
JD136099 - Sequence 117123 from Patent EP1572962.
JD097682 - Sequence 78706 from Patent EP1572962.
JD136100 - Sequence 117124 from Patent EP1572962.
JD136101 - Sequence 117125 from Patent EP1572962.
JD243165 - Sequence 224189 from Patent EP1572962.
JD238308 - Sequence 219332 from Patent EP1572962.
JD430902 - Sequence 411926 from Patent EP1572962.
JD443825 - Sequence 424849 from Patent EP1572962.
JD071450 - Sequence 52474 from Patent EP1572962.

-  Biochemical and Signaling Pathways
  KEGG - Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes
hsa00230 - Purine metabolism
hsa04020 - Calcium signaling pathway
hsa04062 - Chemokine signaling pathway
hsa04114 - Oocyte meiosis
hsa04270 - Vascular smooth muscle contraction
hsa04540 - Gap junction
hsa04912 - GnRH signaling pathway
hsa04914 - Progesterone-mediated oocyte maturation
hsa04916 - Melanogenesis
hsa05414 - Dilated cardiomyopathy

Reactome (by CSHL, EBI, and GO)

Protein Q08462 (Reactome details) participates in the following event(s):

R-HSA-163617 G alpha (s) activates adenylate cyclase
R-HSA-170672 Galpha-olf:GTP binds to adenylate cyclase and activates it
R-HSA-392064 G alpha (z) inhibits adenylate cyclase
R-HSA-392206 G alpha (i) inhibits adenylate cyclase
R-HSA-170674 Dissociation of the Gi alpha:G olf complex
R-HSA-170677 The G alpha-olf:GDP:Adenylate cyclase complex dissociates
R-HSA-170685 Adenylaye cyclase increases the GTPase activity of G alpha-olf
R-HSA-170686 Adenylate cyclase increases the GTPase activity of Gi alpha
R-HSA-170671 G alpha-olf:GTP binds to Gi alpha1:GTP:adenylate cyclase complex
R-HSA-111930 Adenylate cyclase produces cAMP
R-HSA-392129 Adenylate cyclase converts ATP to 3',5'-cyclic AMP (cAMP) and pyrophosphate
R-HSA-5610727 GPR161 promotes cAMP production in a G alpha(s)-dependent manner
R-HSA-164377 Activated Adenylate cyclase catalyses cAMP synthesis
R-HSA-170676 Adenylate cyclase converts ATP into cyclic AMP
R-HSA-170666 Adenylate cyclase increases the GTPase activity of G alpha-olf
R-HSA-163359 Glucagon signaling in metabolic regulation
R-HSA-418555 G alpha (s) signalling events
R-HSA-432040 Vasopressin regulates renal water homeostasis via Aquaporins
R-HSA-170660 Adenylate cyclase activating pathway
R-HSA-418597 G alpha (z) signalling events
R-HSA-170670 Adenylate cyclase inhibitory pathway
R-HSA-418594 G alpha (i) signalling events
R-HSA-163685 Energy Metabolism
R-HSA-388396 GPCR downstream signalling
R-HSA-445717 Aquaporin-mediated transport
R-HSA-112040 G-protein mediated events
R-HSA-997269 Inhibition of adenylate cyclase pathway
R-HSA-163615 PKA activation
R-HSA-5610787 Hedgehog 'off' state
R-HSA-164378 PKA activation in glucagon signalling
R-HSA-1430728 Metabolism
R-HSA-372790 Signaling by GPCR
R-HSA-382551 Transport of small molecules
R-HSA-111885 Opioid Signalling
R-HSA-991365 Activation of GABAB receptors
R-HSA-111931 PKA-mediated phosphorylation of CREB
R-HSA-5358351 Signaling by Hedgehog
R-HSA-162582 Signal Transduction
R-HSA-977444 GABA B receptor activation
R-HSA-111933 Calmodulin induced events
R-HSA-977443 GABA receptor activation
R-HSA-111997 CaM pathway
R-HSA-112314 Neurotransmitter receptors and postsynaptic signal transmission
R-HSA-111996 Ca-dependent events
R-HSA-1489509 DAG and IP3 signaling
R-HSA-112315 Transmission across Chemical Synapses
R-HSA-112043 PLC beta mediated events
R-HSA-9006925 Intracellular signaling by second messengers
R-HSA-112316 Neuronal System

-  Other Names for This Gene
  Alternate Gene Symbols: ADCY2_HUMAN, ENST00000338316.1, ENST00000338316.2, ENST00000338316.3, ENST00000338316.4, ENST00000338316.5, ENST00000338316.6, ENST00000338316.7, ENST00000338316.8, KIAA1060, NM_020546, Q08462, Q2NKL8, Q9UDB2, Q9UPU2, uc003jdz.1, uc003jdz.2, uc003jdz.3
UCSC ID: ENST00000338316.9
RefSeq Accession: NM_020546
Protein: Q08462 (aka ADCY2_HUMAN or CYA2_HUMAN)
CCDS: CCDS3872.2

-  Methods, Credits, and Use Restrictions
  Click here for details on how this gene model was made and data restrictions if any.