Human Gene RARRES2 (ENST00000223271.8) from GENCODE V44
  Description: Homo sapiens retinoic acid receptor responder 2 (RARRES2), mRNA. (from RefSeq NM_002889)
RefSeq Summary (NM_002889): This gene encodes a secreted chemotactic protein that initiates chemotaxis via the ChemR23 G protein-coupled seven-transmembrane domain ligand. Expression of this gene is upregulated by the synthetic retinoid tazarotene and occurs in a wide variety of tissues. The active protein has several roles, including that as an adipokine and as an antimicrobial protein with activity against bacteria and fungi. [provided by RefSeq, Nov 2014].
Gencode Transcript: ENST00000223271.8
Gencode Gene: ENSG00000106538.10
Transcript (Including UTRs)
   Position: hg38 chr7:150,338,329-150,341,629 Size: 3,301 Total Exon Count: 6 Strand: -
Coding Region
   Position: hg38 chr7:150,338,625-150,340,609 Size: 1,985 Coding Exon Count: 4 

Page IndexSequence and LinksUniProtKB CommentsPrimersMalaCardsCTD
RNA-Seq ExpressionMicroarray ExpressionRNA StructureProtein StructureOther SpeciesGO Annotations
mRNA DescriptionsPathwaysOther NamesMethods
Data last updated at UCSC: 2023-08-18 00:09:47

-  Sequence and Links to Tools and Databases
Genomic Sequence (chr7:150,338,329-150,341,629)mRNA (may differ from genome)Protein (163 aa)
Gene SorterGenome BrowserOther Species FASTATable SchemaAlphaFoldBioGPS
EnsemblEntrez GeneExonPrimerGencodeGeneCardsHGNC
PubMedReactomeUniProtKBWikipediaBioGrid CRISPR DB

-  Comments and Description Text from UniProtKB
DESCRIPTION: RecName: Full=Retinoic acid receptor responder protein 2; AltName: Full=RAR-responsive protein TIG2; AltName: Full=Tazarotene-induced gene 2 protein; Flags: Precursor;
SUBCELLULAR LOCATION: Secreted (Potential).
TISSUE SPECIFICITY: Highly expressed in skin (basal and suprabasal layers of the epidermis, hair follicles and endothelial cells). Also found in pancreas, liver, spleen, prostate, ovary, small intestine and colon.
INDUCTION: Inhibited in psoriatic lesions. Activated by tazarotene in skin rafts and in the epidermis of psoriatic lesions.

-  Primer design for this transcript

Primer3Plus can design qPCR Primers that straddle exon-exon-junctions, which amplify only cDNA, not genomic DNA.
Click here to load the transcript sequence and exon structure into Primer3Plus

Exonprimer can design one pair of Sanger sequencing primers around every exon, located in non-genic sequence.
Click here to open Exonprimer with this transcript

To design primers for a non-coding sequence, zoom to a region of interest and select from the drop-down menu: View > In External Tools > Primer3

-  MalaCards Disease Associations
  MalaCards Gene Search: RARRES2
Diseases sorted by gene-association score: obesity (6), diabetes mellitus, noninsulin-dependent (1)

-  Comparative Toxicogenomics Database (CTD)
  The following chemicals interact with this gene           more ... click here to view the complete list

-  RNA-Seq Expression Data from GTEx (53 Tissues, 570 Donors)
  Highest median expression: 694.20 RPKM in Adrenal Gland
Total median expression: 3666.26 RPKM

View in GTEx track of Genome Browser    View at GTEx portal     View GTEx Body Map

+  Microarray Expression Data
  Press "+" in the title bar above to open this section.

-  mRNA Secondary Structure of 3' and 5' UTRs
RegionFold EnergyBasesEnergy/Base
Display As
5' UTR -18.9072-0.262 Picture PostScript Text
3' UTR -33.30121-0.275 Picture PostScript Text

The RNAfold program from the Vienna RNA Package is used to perform the secondary structure predictions and folding calculations. The estimated folding energy is in kcal/mol. The more negative the energy, the more secondary structure the RNA is likely to have.

-  Protein Domain and Structure Information
  ModBase Predicted Comparative 3D Structure on Q99969
The pictures above may be empty if there is no ModBase structure for the protein. The ModBase structure frequently covers just a fragment of the protein. You may be asked to log onto ModBase the first time you click on the pictures. It is simplest after logging in to just click on the picture again to get to the specific info on that model.

-  Orthologous Genes in Other Species
  Orthologies between human, mouse, and rat are computed by taking the best BLASTP hit, and filtering out non-syntenic hits. For more distant species reciprocal-best BLASTP hits are used. Note that the absence of an ortholog in the table below may reflect incomplete annotations in the other species rather than a true absence of the orthologous gene.
MouseRatZebrafishD. melanogasterC. elegansS. cerevisiae
Genome BrowserGenome BrowserNo orthologNo orthologNo orthologNo ortholog
Gene Details     
Gene Sorter     
Protein SequenceProtein Sequence    

-  Gene Ontology (GO) Annotations with Structured Vocabulary
  Molecular Function:
GO:0005102 receptor binding
GO:0005515 protein binding

Biological Process:
GO:0001523 retinoid metabolic process
GO:0001701 in utero embryonic development
GO:0001934 positive regulation of protein phosphorylation
GO:0002576 platelet degranulation
GO:0006935 chemotaxis
GO:0006954 inflammatory response
GO:0010759 positive regulation of macrophage chemotaxis
GO:0019732 antifungal humoral response
GO:0030154 cell differentiation
GO:0045087 innate immune response
GO:0045600 positive regulation of fat cell differentiation
GO:0048566 embryonic digestive tract development
GO:0050829 defense response to Gram-negative bacterium
GO:0050830 defense response to Gram-positive bacterium
GO:0050921 positive regulation of chemotaxis
GO:0050994 regulation of lipid catabolic process
GO:0061760 antifungal innate immune response
GO:2001275 positive regulation of glucose import in response to insulin stimulus

Cellular Component:
GO:0005576 extracellular region
GO:0005615 extracellular space
GO:0031012 extracellular matrix
GO:0031089 platelet dense granule lumen

-  Descriptions from all associated GenBank mRNAs
  LF207127 - JP 2014500723-A/14630: Polycomb-Associated Non-Coding RNAs.
MA442704 - JP 2018138019-A/14630: Polycomb-Associated Non-Coding RNAs.
BC000069 - Homo sapiens retinoic acid receptor responder (tazarotene induced) 2, mRNA (cDNA clone MGC:1544 IMAGE:3506067), complete cds.
AB015632 - Homo sapiens mRNA for type II membrane protein, complete cds, clone:HP10433.
AK092804 - Homo sapiens cDNA FLJ35485 fis, clone SMINT2008455, moderately similar to RETINOIC ACID RECEPTOR RESPONDER PROTEIN 2 PRECURSOR.
U77594 - Human tazarotene-induced gene 2 (TIG2) mRNA, complete cds.
CR541992 - Homo sapiens full open reading frame cDNA clone RZPDo834A0835D for gene RARRES2, retinoic acid receptor responder (tazarotene induced) 2; complete cds, incl. stopcodon.
AK312197 - Homo sapiens cDNA, FLJ92484, Homo sapiens retinoic acid receptor responder (tazarotene induced)2 (RARRES2), mRNA.
KJ897450 - Synthetic construct Homo sapiens clone ccsbBroadEn_06844 RARRES2 gene, encodes complete protein.
CR542026 - Homo sapiens full open reading frame cDNA clone RZPDo834F0835D for gene RARRES2, retinoic acid receptor responder (tazarotene induced) 2; complete cds, without stopcodon.
JD215671 - Sequence 196695 from Patent EP1572962.
JD320113 - Sequence 301137 from Patent EP1572962.
JD538274 - Sequence 519298 from Patent EP1572962.
LF362217 - JP 2014500723-A/169720: Polycomb-Associated Non-Coding RNAs.
MA597794 - JP 2018138019-A/169720: Polycomb-Associated Non-Coding RNAs.
JD546408 - Sequence 527432 from Patent EP1572962.
JD231842 - Sequence 212866 from Patent EP1572962.
JD132356 - Sequence 113380 from Patent EP1572962.
L07329 - Homo sapiens mRNA sequence.

-  Biochemical and Signaling Pathways
  Reactome (by CSHL, EBI, and GO)

Protein Q99969 (Reactome details) participates in the following event(s):

R-HSA-481009 Exocytosis of platelet dense granule content
R-HSA-114608 Platelet degranulation
R-HSA-76005 Response to elevated platelet cytosolic Ca2+
R-HSA-76002 Platelet activation, signaling and aggregation
R-HSA-109582 Hemostasis

-  Other Names for This Gene
  Alternate Gene Symbols: ENST00000223271.1, ENST00000223271.2, ENST00000223271.3, ENST00000223271.4, ENST00000223271.5, ENST00000223271.6, ENST00000223271.7, NM_002889, Q7LE02, Q99969, RARR2_HUMAN, TIG2, uc003wha.1, uc003wha.2, uc003wha.3, uc003wha.4, uc003wha.5
UCSC ID: ENST00000223271.8
RefSeq Accession: NM_002889
Protein: Q99969 (aka RARR2_HUMAN)
CCDS: CCDS5902.1

-  Methods, Credits, and Use Restrictions
  Click here for details on how this gene model was made and data restrictions if any.