Human Gene HRAS (ENST00000451590.5) Description and Page Index
  Description: Homo sapiens HRas proto-oncogene, GTPase (HRAS), transcript variant 3, mRNA. (from RefSeq NM_001130442)
RefSeq Summary (NM_001130442): This gene belongs to the Ras oncogene family, whose members are related to the transforming genes of mammalian sarcoma retroviruses. The products encoded by these genes function in signal transduction pathways. These proteins can bind GTP and GDP, and they have intrinsic GTPase activity. This protein undergoes a continuous cycle of de- and re-palmitoylation, which regulates its rapid exchange between the plasma membrane and the Golgi apparatus. Mutations in this gene cause Costello syndrome, a disease characterized by increased growth at the prenatal stage, growth deficiency at the postnatal stage, predisposition to tumor formation, cognitive disability, skin and musculoskeletal abnormalities, distinctive facial appearance and cardiovascular abnormalities. Defects in this gene are implicated in a variety of cancers, including bladder cancer, follicular thyroid cancer, and oral squamous cell carcinoma. Multiple transcript variants, which encode different isoforms, have been identified for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008].
Gencode Transcript: ENST00000451590.5
Gencode Gene: ENSG00000174775.17
Transcript (Including UTRs)
   Position: hg38 chr11:532,243-535,550 Size: 3,308 Total Exon Count: 5 Strand: -
Coding Region
   Position: hg38 chr11:532,636-534,322 Size: 1,687 Coding Exon Count: 4 

Page IndexSequence and LinksMalaCardsCTDRNA-Seq ExpressionMicroarray Expression
RNA StructureOther SpeciesmRNA DescriptionsPathwaysOther NamesGeneReviews
Data last updated at UCSC: 2021-01-14 15:32:12

-  Sequence and Links to Tools and Databases
Genomic Sequence (chr11:532,243-535,550)mRNA (may differ from genome)Protein (189 aa)
Gene SorterGenome BrowserOther Species FASTAGene interactionsTable SchemaBioGPS
CGAPEnsemblEntrez GeneExonPrimerGeneCardsHGNC

-  MalaCards Disease Associations
  MalaCards Gene Search: HRAS
Diseases sorted by gene-association score: costello syndrome* (1710), schimmelpenning-feuerstein-mims syndrome, somatic mosaic* (1250), epidermal nevus, somatic* (520), thyroid cancer, nonmedullary, 2* (494), melanocytic nevus syndrome, congenital, somatic* (389), phakomatosis pigmentokeratotica* (350), bladder cancer, somatic* (332), colorectal cancer* (82), differentiated thyroid carcinoma* (76), thyroid cancer (40), oral squamous cell carcinoma (34), sarcoma (33), phacomatosis pigmentokeratotica (18), squamous cell carcinoma (18), spitz nevus (16), pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (15), cardiofaciocutaneous syndrome (15), chromosome 1q21.1 deletion syndrome (14), ampulla of vater neoplasm (13), thymic neuroendocrine tumor (12), lung cancer (12), duodenum cancer (11), epithelial-myoepithelial carcinoma (11), ankyloglossia (11), ectomesenchymoma (10), sigmoid neoplasm (10), cell type cancer (10), congenital myopathy (9), urbach-wiethe disease (9), colorectal adenoma (9), acneiform dermatitis (9), deafness, autosomal dominant 49 (9), neurofibromatosis, type 1 (9), lung cancer susceptibility 3 (8), diabetes mellitus, insulin-dependent, 15 (8), chromosome 1q21.1 duplication syndrome (8), intestinal benign neoplasm (8), malignant ectomesenchymoma (8), colorectal adenocarcinoma (8), gastrointestinal system cancer (8), deafness, autosomal dominant 7 (8), pancreas adenocarcinoma (7), noonan syndrome 1 (7), gastrointestinal system benign neoplasm (7), leopard syndrome (7), dermatitis, atopic 2 (7), meningeal melanomatosis (7), pycnodysostosis (7), paronychia (7), episodic kinesigenic dyskinesia 2 (7), multinodular goiter (7), ovary serous adenocarcinoma (7), dyschromatosis symmetrica hereditaria (7), penile cancer (6), thrombocytopenia-absent radius syndrome (6), sporadic pheochromocytoma (6), pulmonic stenosis (6), myelodysplastic myeloproliferative cancer (6), juvenile glaucoma (6), chromosome 14q11-q22 deletion syndrome (6), adenocarcinoma (6), ovarian cystadenocarcinoma (6), periampullary adenoma (6), benign struma ovarii (6), embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma (6), biliary tract neoplasm (6), exanthem (6), adenosquamous pancreas carcinoma (6), autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome (6), cell type benign neoplasm (6), rectal neoplasm (6), ovary adenocarcinoma (6), lung benign neoplasm (6), core binding factor acute myeloid leukemia (5), chromosome 13q14 deletion syndrome (5), melanomatosis (5), melanoma (5), ovarian melanoma (5), aggressive digital papillary adenocarcinoma (5), bile duct adenocarcinoma (5), integumentary system cancer (5), chromosome 4q21 deletion syndrome (5), thyroid cancer, nonmedullary, 1 (5), malignant skin fibrous histiocytoma (5), malignant dermis tumor (5), adenosquamous cell lung carcinoma (5), malignant fibrous histiocytoma of bone (5), vulvar melanoma (5), clivus chordoma (5), ethmoid sinus cancer (5), ethmoid sinus adenocarcinoma (5), biliary papillomatosis (5), pilocytic astrocytoma (5), skin benign neoplasm (5), colloid carcinoma of the pancreas (5), endocrine gland cancer (5), central nervous system melanocytic neoplasm (5), malignant struma ovarii (5), nasal cavity adenocarcinoma (5), marcus gunn phenomenon (5), endometrial cancer (5), adult fibrosarcoma (4), chromosome 22q11.2 microduplication syndrome (4), secondary hypertrophic osteoarthropathy (4), lung adenoid cystic carcinoma (4), tonsil squamous cell carcinoma (4), mixed cell type cancer (4), lacrimal gland adenocarcinoma (4), pancreatic mucinous cystadenoma (4), hereditary wilms' tumor (4), transverse colon cancer (4), hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy, type iic (4), pancreatic cancer (4), liver angiosarcoma (4), botryoid rhabdomyosarcoma (4), myopathy (3), cardiomyopathy (3), urinary bladder cancer (3), breast cancer (2), prostate cancer (2), stomach cancer (2), myelofibrosis with myeloid metaplasia, somatic (2), hematologic cancer (2), leukemia, chronic myeloid, somatic (1), charcot-marie-tooth disease, type 2e (1), diabetes mellitus, insulin-dependent (1), ovary epithelial cancer (1), female reproductive organ cancer (1), malignant ovarian surface epithelial-stromal neoplasm (1), malignant melanoma, somatic (1), leukemia, acute myeloid (1), colonic benign neoplasm (1)
* = Manually curated disease association

-  Comparative Toxicogenomics Database (CTD)
  The following chemicals interact with this gene           more ... click here to view the complete list

-  RNA-Seq Expression Data from GTEx (53 Tissues, 570 Donors)
  Highest median expression: 46.23 RPKM in Skin - Not Sun Exposed (Suprapubic)
Total median expression: 1095.10 RPKM

View in GTEx track of Genome Browser    View at GTEx portal     View GTEx Body Map

+  Microarray Expression Data
  Press "+" in the title bar above to open this section.

-  mRNA Secondary Structure of 3' and 5' UTRs
RegionFold EnergyBasesEnergy/Base
Display As
5' UTR -89.70188-0.477 Picture PostScript Text
3' UTR -160.70393-0.409 Picture PostScript Text

The RNAfold program from the Vienna RNA Package is used to perform the secondary structure predictions and folding calculations. The estimated folding energy is in kcal/mol. The more negative the energy, the more secondary structure the RNA is likely to have.

-  Orthologous Genes in Other Species
  Orthologies between human, mouse, and rat are computed by taking the best BLASTP hit, and filtering out non-syntenic hits. For more distant species reciprocal-best BLASTP hits are used. Note that the absence of an ortholog in the table below may reflect incomplete annotations in the other species rather than a true absence of the orthologous gene.
MouseRatZebrafishD. melanogasterC. elegansS. cerevisiae
Genome BrowserGenome BrowserNo orthologNo orthologNo orthologNo ortholog
Gene Details     
Gene Sorter     
Protein SequenceProtein Sequence    

-  Descriptions from all associated GenBank mRNAs
  BC006499 - Homo sapiens v-Ha-ras Harvey rat sarcoma viral oncogene homolog, mRNA (cDNA clone MGC:2359 IMAGE:2819996), complete cds.
JA661268 - Sequence 1 from Patent WO2011133584.
CS544947 - Sequence 56 from Patent WO2006028967.
DL262781 - Regulation of Oncogenes by MicroRNAs.
HW270260 - JP 2012105669-A/56: Regulation of Oncogenes by MicroRNAs.
JA072126 - Sequence 56 from Patent EP2298897.
JC192451 - Sequence 56 from Patent EP2338993.
JC246371 - Sequence 56 from Patent EP2338994.
CS544946 - Sequence 55 from Patent WO2006028967.
DL262780 - Regulation of Oncogenes by MicroRNAs.
HW270259 - JP 2012105669-A/55: Regulation of Oncogenes by MicroRNAs.
JA072125 - Sequence 55 from Patent EP2298897.
JC192450 - Sequence 55 from Patent EP2338993.
JC246370 - Sequence 55 from Patent EP2338994.
CS544945 - Sequence 54 from Patent WO2006028967.
DL262779 - Regulation of Oncogenes by MicroRNAs.
HW270258 - JP 2012105669-A/54: Regulation of Oncogenes by MicroRNAs.
JA072124 - Sequence 54 from Patent EP2298897.
JC192449 - Sequence 54 from Patent EP2338993.
JC246369 - Sequence 54 from Patent EP2338994.
AF493916 - Homo sapiens Ras family small GTP binding protein H-Ras (HRAS) mRNA, complete cds.
BC095471 - Homo sapiens v-Ha-ras Harvey rat sarcoma viral oncogene homolog, mRNA (cDNA clone MGC:111377 IMAGE:6519193), complete cds.
CR536579 - Homo sapiens full open reading frame cDNA clone RZPDo834G0522D for gene HRAS, v-Ha-ras Harvey rat sarcoma viral oncogene homolog; complete cds, incl. stopcodon.
AB451336 - Homo sapiens HRAS mRNA for v-Ha-ras Harvey rat sarcoma viral oncogene homolog isoform 1, complete cds, clone: FLJ82516SAAN.
BT019421 - Homo sapiens v-Ha-ras Harvey rat sarcoma viral oncogene homolog mRNA, complete cds.
AB451485 - Homo sapiens HRAS mRNA for v-Ha-ras Harvey rat sarcoma viral oncogene homolog isoform 1, partial cds, clone: FLJ82516SAAF.
AB527708 - Synthetic construct DNA, clone: pF1KB6834, Homo sapiens HRAS gene for v-Ha-ras Harvey rat sarcoma viral oncogene homolog, without stop codon, in Flexi system.
CR542271 - Homo sapiens full open reading frame cDNA clone RZPDo834G0526D for gene HRAS, v-Ha-ras Harvey rat sarcoma viral oncogene homolog; complete cds, without stopcodon.
KJ534867 - Homo sapiens clone HRAS_iso-A_adult-A06 Harvey rat sarcoma viral oncoprotein isoform A (HRAS) mRNA, partial cds, alternatively spliced.
KJ534868 - Homo sapiens clone HRAS_iso-A_fetal-F05 Harvey rat sarcoma viral oncoprotein isoform A (HRAS) mRNA, partial cds, alternatively spliced.
AJ437024 - Homo sapiens mRNA for p19 H-RasIDX protein (H-RAS gene).
KJ891390 - Synthetic construct Homo sapiens clone ccsbBroadEn_00784 HRAS gene, encodes complete protein.
KR709969 - Synthetic construct Homo sapiens clone CCSBHm_00008586 HRAS (HRAS) mRNA, encodes complete protein.
KR709970 - Synthetic construct Homo sapiens clone CCSBHm_00008588 HRAS (HRAS) mRNA, encodes complete protein.
KR709971 - Synthetic construct Homo sapiens clone CCSBHm_00008589 HRAS (HRAS) mRNA, encodes complete protein.
KR709972 - Synthetic construct Homo sapiens clone CCSBHm_00008591 HRAS (HRAS) mRNA, encodes complete protein.

-  Biochemical and Signaling Pathways
  KEGG - Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes
hsa04010 - MAPK signaling pathway
hsa04012 - ErbB signaling pathway
hsa04062 - Chemokine signaling pathway
hsa04144 - Endocytosis
hsa04360 - Axon guidance
hsa04370 - VEGF signaling pathway
hsa04510 - Focal adhesion
hsa04530 - Tight junction
hsa04540 - Gap junction
hsa04650 - Natural killer cell mediated cytotoxicity
hsa04660 - T cell receptor signaling pathway
hsa04662 - B cell receptor signaling pathway
hsa04664 - Fc epsilon RI signaling pathway
hsa04720 - Long-term potentiation
hsa04722 - Neurotrophin signaling pathway
hsa04730 - Long-term depression
hsa04810 - Regulation of actin cytoskeleton
hsa04910 - Insulin signaling pathway
hsa04912 - GnRH signaling pathway
hsa04916 - Melanogenesis
hsa05200 - Pathways in cancer
hsa05211 - Renal cell carcinoma
hsa05213 - Endometrial cancer
hsa05214 - Glioma
hsa05215 - Prostate cancer
hsa05216 - Thyroid cancer
hsa05218 - Melanoma
hsa05219 - Bladder cancer
hsa05220 - Chronic myeloid leukemia
hsa05221 - Acute myeloid leukemia
hsa05223 - Non-small cell lung cancer

BioCarta from NCI Cancer Genome Anatomy Project
h_HBxPathway - Calcium Signaling by HBx of Hepatitis B virus
h_biopeptidesPathway - Bioactive Peptide Induced Signaling Pathway
h_cdMacPathway - Cadmium induces DNA synthesis and proliferation in macrophages
h_egfPathway - EGF Signaling Pathway
h_erkPathway - Erk1/Erk2 Mapk Signaling pathway
h_keratinocytePathway - Keratinocyte Differentiation
h_mCalpainPathway - mCalpain and friends in Cell motility
h_reckPathway - Inhibition of Matrix Metalloproteinases
h_RacCycDPathway - Influence of Ras and Rho proteins on G1 to S Transition
h_bcrPathway - BCR Signaling Pathway
h_il2Pathway - IL 2 signaling pathway
h_mPRPathway - How Progesterone Initiates the Oocyte Maturation
h_nfatPathway - NFAT and Hypertrophy of the heart (Transcription in the broken heart)
h_tcrPathway - T Cell Receptor Signaling Pathway
h_tffPathway - Trefoil Factors Initiate Mucosal Healing
h_At1rPathway - Angiotensin II mediated activation of JNK Pathway via Pyk2 dependent signaling
h_cardiacegfPathway - Role of EGF Receptor Transactivation by GPCRs in Cardiac Hypertrophy
h_ecmPathway - Erk and PI-3 Kinase Are Necessary for Collagen Binding in Corneal Epithelia
h_fMLPpathway - fMLP induced chemokine gene expression in HMC-1 cells
h_malPathway - Role of MAL in Rho-Mediated Activation of SRF
h_rasPathway - Ras Signaling Pathway
h_sppaPathway - Aspirin Blocks Signaling Pathway Involved in Platelet Activation
h_integrinPathway - Integrin Signaling Pathway
h_mapkPathway - MAPKinase Signaling Pathway
h_gleevecpathway - Inhibition of Cellular Proliferation by Gleevec
h_igf1Pathway - IGF-1 Signaling Pathway
h_il3Pathway - IL 3 signaling pathway
h_il6Pathway - IL 6 signaling pathway
h_pyk2Pathway - Links between Pyk2 and Map Kinases
h_trkaPathway - Trka Receptor Signaling Pathway
h_cdk5Pathway - Phosphorylation of MEK1 by cdk5/p35 down regulates the MAP kinase pathway
h_epoPathway - EPO Signaling Pathway
h_erk5Pathway - Role of Erk5 in Neuronal Survival
h_metPathway - Signaling of Hepatocyte Growth Factor Receptor
h_pmlPathway - Regulation of transcriptional activity by PML
h_sam68Pathway - Regulation of Splicing through Sam68
h_CCR3Pathway - CCR3 signaling in Eosinophils
h_TPOPathway - TPO Signaling Pathway
h_cxcr4Pathway - CXCR4 Signaling Pathway
h_fcer1Pathway - Fc Epsilon Receptor I Signaling in Mast Cells
h_ghPathway - Growth Hormone Signaling Pathway
h_gpcrPathway - Signaling Pathway from G-Protein Families
h_insulinPathway - Insulin Signaling Pathway
h_longevityPathway - The IGF-1 Receptor and Longevity
h_p38mapkPathway - p38 MAPK Signaling Pathway
h_spryPathway - Sprouty regulation of tyrosine kinase signals
h_bArrestin-srcPathway - Roles of -arrestin-dependent Recruitment of Src Kinases in GPCR Signaling
h_crebPathway - Transcription factor CREB and its extracellular signals
h_etsPathway - METS affect on Macrophage Differentiation
h_her2Pathway - Role of ERBB2 in Signal Transduction and Oncology
h_igf1rPathway - Multiple antiapoptotic pathways from IGF-1R signaling lead to BAD phosphorylation
h_il2rbPathway - IL-2 Receptor Beta Chain in T cell Activation
h_ngfPathway - Nerve growth factor pathway (NGF)
h_pdgfPathway - PDGF Signaling Pathway
h_vegfPathway - VEGF, Hypoxia, and Angiogenesis

-  Other Names for This Gene
  Alternate Gene Symbols: ENST00000451590.1, ENST00000451590.2, ENST00000451590.3, ENST00000451590.4, NM_001130442, uc010qvx.1, uc010qvx.2, uc010qvx.3, X5D945
UCSC ID: ENST00000451590.5
RefSeq Accession: NM_001130442
CCDS: CCDS7698.1

-  GeneReviews for This Gene
  GeneReviews article(s) related to gene HRAS:
costello (Costello Syndrome)

-  Methods, Credits, and Use Restrictions
  Click here for details on how this gene model was made and data restrictions if any.