Human Gene PPY (ENST00000225992.8) from GENCODE V36
  Description: Homo sapiens pancreatic polypeptide (PPY), transcript variant 1, mRNA. (from RefSeq NM_002722)
RefSeq Summary (NM_002722): This gene encodes a member of the neuropeptide Y (NPY) family of peptides. The encoded 95 aa preproprotein is synthesized in the pancreatic islets of Langerhans and proteolytically processed to generate two peptide products. These products include the active pancreatic hormone of 36 aa and an icosapeptide of unknown function. This hormone acts as a regulator of pancreatic and gastrointestinal functions and may be important in the regulation of food intake. Plasma level of this hormone has been shown to be reduced in conditions associated with increased food intake and elevated in anorexia nervosa. In addition, infusion of this hormone in obese rodents has shown to decrease weight gain. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants, at least one of which encodes an isoform that is proteolytically processed. [provided by RefSeq, Jan 2016].
Gencode Transcript: ENST00000225992.8
Gencode Gene: ENSG00000108849.8
Transcript (Including UTRs)
   Position: hg38 chr17:43,940,804-43,942,476 Size: 1,673 Total Exon Count: 4 Strand: -
Coding Region
   Position: hg38 chr17:43,940,928-43,941,654 Size: 727 Coding Exon Count: 3 

Page IndexSequence and LinksUniProtKB CommentsMalaCardsCTDRNA-Seq Expression
Microarray ExpressionRNA StructureProtein StructureOther SpeciesGO AnnotationsmRNA Descriptions
PathwaysOther NamesMethods
Data last updated at UCSC: 2021-01-14 15:32:12

-  Sequence and Links to Tools and Databases
Genomic Sequence (chr17:43,940,804-43,942,476)mRNA (may differ from genome)Protein (95 aa)
Gene SorterGenome BrowserOther Species FASTAGene interactionsTable SchemaBioGPS
CGAPEnsemblEntrez GeneExonPrimerGeneCardsHGNC

-  Comments and Description Text from UniProtKB
DESCRIPTION: RecName: Full=Pancreatic prohormone; AltName: Full=Pancreatic polypeptide; Short=PP; AltName: INN=Obinepitide; Contains: RecName: Full=Pancreatic hormone; Short=PH; Contains: RecName: Full=Pancreatic icosapeptide; Short=PI; Flags: Precursor;
FUNCTION: Pancreatic hormone is synthesized in pancreatic islets of Langerhans and acts as a regulator of pancreatic and gastrointestinal functions.
FUNCTION: The physiological role for the icosapeptide has not yet been elucidated.
PHARMACEUTICAL: Obinepitide is under clinical trial by 7TM Pharma to be used for the treatment of obesity. Obinepitide is derived from pancreatic hormone by having Gln-63.
SIMILARITY: Belongs to the NPY family.

-  MalaCards Disease Associations
  MalaCards Gene Search: PPY
Diseases sorted by gene-association score: obesity (2), pancreas disease (2), endocrine pancreas disease (2), pancreatic cholera (2), pancreatic somatostatinoma (2), retinitis pigmentosa-40 (2), duodenal somatostatinoma (1), non-functioning pancreatic endocrine tumor (1), diabetes mellitus, insulin-dependent (1), duodenal gastrinoma (1), rapp-hodgkin syndrome (1), partington syndrome (1), fetal erythroblastosis (1), space motion sickness (1), pancreatic gastrinoma (1)

-  Comparative Toxicogenomics Database (CTD)
  The following chemicals interact with this gene

-  RNA-Seq Expression Data from GTEx (53 Tissues, 570 Donors)
  Highest median expression: 8.03 RPKM in Pancreas
Total median expression: 8.38 RPKM

View in GTEx track of Genome Browser    View at GTEx portal     View GTEx Body Map

+  Microarray Expression Data
  Press "+" in the title bar above to open this section.

-  mRNA Secondary Structure of 3' and 5' UTRs
RegionFold EnergyBasesEnergy/Base
Display As
5' UTR -16.5056-0.295 Picture PostScript Text
3' UTR -27.80124-0.224 Picture PostScript Text

The RNAfold program from the Vienna RNA Package is used to perform the secondary structure predictions and folding calculations. The estimated folding energy is in kcal/mol. The more negative the energy, the more secondary structure the RNA is likely to have.

-  Protein Domain and Structure Information
  InterPro Domains: Graphical view of domain structure
IPR015480 - Pancreatic_hormone
IPR001955 - Pancreatic_hormone-like
IPR020392 - Pancreatic_hormone-like_CS

Pfam Domains:
PF00159 - Pancreatic hormone peptide

Protein Data Bank (PDB) 3-D Structure
MuPIT help



ModBase Predicted Comparative 3D Structure on P01298
The pictures above may be empty if there is no ModBase structure for the protein. The ModBase structure frequently covers just a fragment of the protein. You may be asked to log onto ModBase the first time you click on the pictures. It is simplest after logging in to just click on the picture again to get to the specific info on that model.

-  Orthologous Genes in Other Species
  Orthologies between human, mouse, and rat are computed by taking the best BLASTP hit, and filtering out non-syntenic hits. For more distant species reciprocal-best BLASTP hits are used. Note that the absence of an ortholog in the table below may reflect incomplete annotations in the other species rather than a true absence of the orthologous gene.
MouseRatZebrafishD. melanogasterC. elegansS. cerevisiae
Genome BrowserGenome BrowserNo orthologNo orthologNo orthologNo ortholog
Gene Details     
Gene Sorter     
Protein SequenceProtein Sequence    

-  Gene Ontology (GO) Annotations with Structured Vocabulary
  Molecular Function:
GO:0001664 G-protein coupled receptor binding
GO:0005179 hormone activity
GO:0005184 neuropeptide hormone activity

Biological Process:
GO:0007186 G-protein coupled receptor signaling pathway
GO:0007218 neuropeptide signaling pathway
GO:0007267 cell-cell signaling
GO:0007631 feeding behavior
GO:0009306 protein secretion
GO:0010469 regulation of receptor activity
GO:0032098 regulation of appetite

Cellular Component:
GO:0005576 extracellular region
GO:0005615 extracellular space
GO:0005737 cytoplasm

-  Descriptions from all associated GenBank mRNAs
  BC032225 - Homo sapiens pancreatic polypeptide, mRNA (cDNA clone MGC:34568 IMAGE:5229163), complete cds.
BC040033 - Homo sapiens pancreatic polypeptide, mRNA (cDNA clone MGC:49921 IMAGE:5747221), complete cds.
X00491 - Human pancreatic polypeptide(PP) and icosapeptide precursor.
JD165328 - Sequence 146352 from Patent EP1572962.
JD190281 - Sequence 171305 from Patent EP1572962.
M15788 - Human pancreatic polypeptide Y mRNA, complete cds.
DQ890559 - Synthetic construct clone IMAGE:100003189; FLH163936.01X; RZPDo839A12162D pancreatic polypeptide (PPY) gene, encodes complete protein.
KJ891878 - Synthetic construct Homo sapiens clone ccsbBroadEn_01272 PPY gene, encodes complete protein.
DQ893721 - Synthetic construct Homo sapiens clone IMAGE:100008181; FLH163932.01L; RZPDo839A12161D pancreatic polypeptide (PPY) gene, encodes complete protein.
JD141879 - Sequence 122903 from Patent EP1572962.

-  Biochemical and Signaling Pathways
  KEGG - Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes
hsa04080 - Neuroactive ligand-receptor interaction

Reactome (by CSHL, EBI, and GO)

Protein P01298 (Reactome details) participates in the following event(s):

R-HSA-388863 Neuropeptide Y receptors can bind neuropeptide Y-related peptides
R-HSA-749454 The Ligand:GPCR:Gi complex dissociates
R-HSA-749456 Liganded Gi-activating GPCRs bind inactive heterotrimeric G-protein Gi
R-HSA-380073 Liganded Gi-activating GPCR acts as a GEF for Gi
R-HSA-375276 Peptide ligand-binding receptors
R-HSA-418594 G alpha (i) signalling events
R-HSA-373076 Class A/1 (Rhodopsin-like receptors)
R-HSA-388396 GPCR downstream signalling
R-HSA-500792 GPCR ligand binding
R-HSA-372790 Signaling by GPCR
R-HSA-162582 Signal Transduction

-  Other Names for This Gene
  Alternate Gene Symbols: ENST00000225992.1, ENST00000225992.2, ENST00000225992.3, ENST00000225992.4, ENST00000225992.5, ENST00000225992.6, ENST00000225992.7, NM_002722, P01298, PAHO_HUMAN, PNP, uc002iep.1, uc002iep.2, uc002iep.3, uc002iep.4, uc002iep.5
UCSC ID: ENST00000225992.8
RefSeq Accession: NM_002722
Protein: P01298 (aka PAHO_HUMAN)
CCDS: CCDS11472.1

-  Methods, Credits, and Use Restrictions
  Click here for details on how this gene model was made and data restrictions if any.