Human Gene TAC1 (ENST00000319273.10)
  Description: Homo sapiens tachykinin precursor 1 (TAC1), transcript variant beta, mRNA. (from RefSeq NM_003182)
RefSeq Summary (NM_003182): This gene encodes four products of the tachykinin peptide hormone family, substance P and neurokinin A, as well as the related peptides, neuropeptide K and neuropeptide gamma. These hormones are thought to function as neurotransmitters which interact with nerve receptors and smooth muscle cells. They are known to induce behavioral responses and function as vasodilators and secretagogues. Substance P is an antimicrobial peptide with antibacterial and antifungal properties. Multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Nov 2014].
Gencode Transcript: ENST00000319273.10
Gencode Gene: ENSG00000006128.12
Transcript (Including UTRs)
   Position: hg38 chr7:97,732,086-97,740,472 Size: 8,387 Total Exon Count: 7 Strand: +
Coding Region
   Position: hg38 chr7:97,732,613-97,739,920 Size: 7,308 Coding Exon Count: 6 

Page IndexSequence and LinksUniProtKB CommentsMalaCardsCTDRNA-Seq Expression
Microarray ExpressionRNA StructureProtein StructureOther SpeciesGO AnnotationsmRNA Descriptions
PathwaysOther NamesMethods
Data last updated at UCSC: 2021-01-14 15:32:12

-  Sequence and Links to Tools and Databases
Genomic Sequence (chr7:97,732,086-97,740,472)mRNA (may differ from genome)Protein (129 aa)
Gene SorterGenome BrowserOther Species FASTAGene interactionsTable SchemaBioGPS
CGAPEnsemblEntrez GeneExonPrimerGeneCardsHGNC

-  Comments and Description Text from UniProtKB
DESCRIPTION: RecName: Full=Protachykinin-1; AltName: Full=PPT; Contains: RecName: Full=Substance P; Contains: RecName: Full=Neurokinin A; Short=NKA; AltName: Full=Neuromedin L; AltName: Full=Substance K; Contains: RecName: Full=Neuropeptide K; Short=NPK; Contains: RecName: Full=Neuropeptide gamma; Contains: RecName: Full=C-terminal-flanking peptide; Flags: Precursor;
FUNCTION: Tachykinins are active peptides which excite neurons, evoke behavioral responses, are potent vasodilators and secretagogues, and contract (directly or indirectly) many smooth muscles.
SIMILARITY: Belongs to the tachykinin family.
WEB RESOURCE: Name=Wikipedia; Note=Neurokinin-1 entry; URL="";

-  MalaCards Disease Associations
  MalaCards Gene Search: TAC1
Diseases sorted by gene-association score: bronchitis (23), neurotrophic keratopathy (18), complex regional pain syndrome (17), vasomotor rhinitis (17), keratopathy (17), glomangiosarcoma (14), cystitis (13), retinitis pigmentosa 67 (12), interstitial cystitis (12), epicondylitis (11), constipation (11), urticaria pigmentosa (11), cryptosporidiosis (11), burn scar (10), neuroschistosomiasis (10), prurigo nodularis (9), retinitis pigmentosa 68 (9), burning mouth syndrome (9), alternating hemiplegia of childhood (8), pain agnosia (8), agnosia (8), irritable bowel syndrome (8), anus basaloid carcinoma (8), headache (7), migraine with or without aura 1 (7), autonomic nervous system disease (7), aspiration pneumonia (6), myofascial pain syndrome (6), pain disorder (6), hemiplegia (6), anismus (6), bladder disease (6), trigeminal nerve disease (5), mononeuropathy (5), dental pulp disease (5), motion sickness (5), bladder neck obstruction (5), stereotypic movement disorder (5), asthma (5), meningoencephalitis (5), nasal cavity disease (5), diffuse pulmonary fibrosis (5), nose disease (4), glomangioma (4), somatoform disorder (4), aplasia of lacrimal and salivary glands (4), cardiovascular organ benign neoplasm (4), benign perivascular tumor (4), neurodermatitis (4), pancreatic steatorrhea (4), serotonin syndrome (4), perry syndrome (4), brachial plexus lesion (3), indeterminate leprosy (3), functional diarrhea (3), bronchial disease (1), upper respiratory tract disease (1), specific developmental disorder (1), intestinal disease (1), respiratory system disease (1), hirschsprung disease 1 (1)

-  Comparative Toxicogenomics Database (CTD)
  The following chemicals interact with this gene           more ... click here to view the complete list

-  RNA-Seq Expression Data from GTEx (53 Tissues, 570 Donors)
  Highest median expression: 121.86 RPKM in Brain - Caudate (basal ganglia)
Total median expression: 454.89 RPKM

View in GTEx track of Genome Browser    View at GTEx portal     View GTEx Body Map

+  Microarray Expression Data
  Press "+" in the title bar above to open this section.

-  mRNA Secondary Structure of 3' and 5' UTRs
RegionFold EnergyBasesEnergy/Base
Display As
5' UTR -40.70119-0.342 Picture PostScript Text
3' UTR -115.80552-0.210 Picture PostScript Text

The RNAfold program from the Vienna RNA Package is used to perform the secondary structure predictions and folding calculations. The estimated folding energy is in kcal/mol. The more negative the energy, the more secondary structure the RNA is likely to have.

-  Protein Domain and Structure Information
  InterPro Domains: Graphical view of domain structure
IPR008216 - Protachykinin
IPR013055 - Tachy_Neuro_lke_CS
IPR008215 - Tachykinin

Protein Data Bank (PDB) 3-D Structure
MuPIT help



To conserve bandwidth, only the images from the first 3 structures are shown.

ModBase Predicted Comparative 3D Structure on P20366
The pictures above may be empty if there is no ModBase structure for the protein. The ModBase structure frequently covers just a fragment of the protein. You may be asked to log onto ModBase the first time you click on the pictures. It is simplest after logging in to just click on the picture again to get to the specific info on that model.

-  Orthologous Genes in Other Species
  Orthologies between human, mouse, and rat are computed by taking the best BLASTP hit, and filtering out non-syntenic hits. For more distant species reciprocal-best BLASTP hits are used. Note that the absence of an ortholog in the table below may reflect incomplete annotations in the other species rather than a true absence of the orthologous gene.
MouseRatZebrafishD. melanogasterC. elegansS. cerevisiae
Genome BrowserGenome BrowserNo orthologNo orthologNo orthologNo ortholog
Gene Details     
Gene Sorter     
Protein SequenceProtein Sequence    

-  Gene Ontology (GO) Annotations with Structured Vocabulary
  Molecular Function:
GO:0005102 receptor binding
GO:0005515 protein binding
GO:0031835 substance P receptor binding
GO:0031836 neuromedin K receptor binding
GO:0031837 substance K receptor binding
GO:0048018 receptor agonist activity

Biological Process:
GO:0001878 response to yeast
GO:0002675 positive regulation of acute inflammatory response
GO:0003085 negative regulation of systemic arterial blood pressure
GO:0006954 inflammatory response
GO:0007186 G-protein coupled receptor signaling pathway
GO:0007204 positive regulation of cytosolic calcium ion concentration
GO:0007217 tachykinin receptor signaling pathway
GO:0007218 neuropeptide signaling pathway
GO:0007267 cell-cell signaling
GO:0007268 chemical synaptic transmission
GO:0007320 insemination
GO:0007616 long-term memory
GO:0008217 regulation of blood pressure
GO:0008306 associative learning
GO:0009582 detection of abiotic stimulus
GO:0009725 response to hormone
GO:0010459 negative regulation of heart rate
GO:0010469 regulation of receptor activity
GO:0010634 positive regulation of epithelial cell migration
GO:0019233 sensory perception of pain
GO:0019731 antibacterial humoral response
GO:0019732 antifungal humoral response
GO:0031640 killing of cells of other organism
GO:0032224 positive regulation of synaptic transmission, cholinergic
GO:0032230 positive regulation of synaptic transmission, GABAergic
GO:0032496 response to lipopolysaccharide
GO:0035815 positive regulation of renal sodium excretion
GO:0043278 response to morphine
GO:0045087 innate immune response
GO:0045760 positive regulation of action potential
GO:0045778 positive regulation of ossification
GO:0046878 positive regulation of saliva secretion
GO:0048265 response to pain
GO:0050671 positive regulation of lymphocyte proliferation
GO:0050829 defense response to Gram-negative bacterium
GO:0050830 defense response to Gram-positive bacterium
GO:0050965 detection of temperature stimulus involved in sensory perception of pain
GO:0051496 positive regulation of stress fiber assembly
GO:0051930 regulation of sensory perception of pain
GO:1901215 negative regulation of neuron death
GO:1901216 positive regulation of neuron death
GO:1902093 positive regulation of flagellated sperm motility
GO:1904058 positive regulation of sensory perception of pain
GO:1990090 cellular response to nerve growth factor stimulus
GO:2000854 positive regulation of corticosterone secretion

Cellular Component:
GO:0005576 extracellular region
GO:0005615 extracellular space
GO:0005623 cell
GO:0005886 plasma membrane
GO:0030424 axon
GO:0043025 neuronal cell body

-  Descriptions from all associated GenBank mRNAs
  U37529 - Human substance P beta-PPT-A mRNA, complete cds.
AK222957 - Homo sapiens mRNA for tachykinin 1 isoform beta precursor variant, clone: HSI01279.
BC018047 - Homo sapiens tachykinin, precursor 1, mRNA (cDNA clone MGC:26361 IMAGE:4792746), complete cds.
X54469 - Human mRNA for beta-preprotachykinin.
DQ895283 - Synthetic construct Homo sapiens clone IMAGE:100009743; FLH185398.01L; RZPDo839A10147D tachykinin, precursor 1 (substance K, substance P, neurokinin 1, neurokinin 2, neuromedin L, neurokinin alpha, neuropeptide K,> (TAC1) gene, encodes complete protein.
DQ892090 - Synthetic construct clone IMAGE:100004720; FLH185402.01X; RZPDo839A10148D tachykinin, precursor 1 (substance K, substance P, neurokinin 1, neurokinin 2, neuromedin L, neurokinin alpha, neuropeptide K,> (TAC1) gene, encodes complete protein.
AB528420 - Synthetic construct DNA, clone: pF1KB6706, Homo sapiens TAC1 gene for tachykinin, precursor 1, without stop codon, in Flexi system.
KJ892240 - Synthetic construct Homo sapiens clone ccsbBroadEn_01634 TAC1 gene, encodes complete protein.
CR407602 - Homo sapiens full open reading frame cDNA clone RZPDo834B083D for gene TAC1, tachykinin, precursor 1 (substance K, substance P, neurokinin 1, neurokinin 2, neuromedin L, neurokinin alpha, neuropeptide K, neuropep complete cds, without stopcodon.
CR541730 - Homo sapiens full open reading frame cDNA clone RZPDo834B1129D for gene TAC1, tachykinin, precursor 1 (substance K, substance P, neurokinin 1, neurokinin 2, neuromedin L, neurokinin alpha, neuropeptide K, neurope; complete cds, incl. stopcodon.
M68906 - Human tachykinin-A (beta-PPT-A) gene, partial cds.
M68907 - Human tachykinin-A (gamma-PPT-A) gene, partial cds.
AF050656 - Homo sapiens alpha preprotachykinin mRNA, partial cds.
AF050655 - Homo sapiens beta preprotachykinin mRNA, partial cds.
AF050657 - Homo sapiens gamma preprotachykinin mRNA, partial cds.
AF050658 - Homo sapiens delta preprotachykinin mRNA, partial cds.
JD307239 - Sequence 288263 from Patent EP1572962.
JD531897 - Sequence 512921 from Patent EP1572962.
MP515269 - Sequence 51 from Patent EP3610019.
MP515271 - Sequence 53 from Patent EP3610019.

-  Biochemical and Signaling Pathways
  KEGG - Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes
hsa04080 - Neuroactive ligand-receptor interaction

Reactome (by CSHL, EBI, and GO)

Protein P20366 (Reactome details) participates in the following event(s):

R-HSA-380076 Tachykinin receptor 1 (NK1) binds to substance P
R-HSA-383363 Tachykinin receptor 2 (NK2) binds to nuerokinin A
R-HSA-749452 The Ligand:GPCR:Gq complex dissociates
R-HSA-749448 Liganded Gq-activating GPCRs bind inactive heterotrimeric Gq
R-HSA-379048 Liganded Gq/11-activating GPCRs act as GEFs for Gq/11
R-HSA-380095 Tachykinin receptors bind tachykinins
R-HSA-416476 G alpha (q) signalling events
R-HSA-375276 Peptide ligand-binding receptors
R-HSA-388396 GPCR downstream signalling
R-HSA-373076 Class A/1 (Rhodopsin-like receptors)
R-HSA-372790 Signaling by GPCR
R-HSA-500792 GPCR ligand binding
R-HSA-162582 Signal Transduction

-  Other Names for This Gene
  Alternate Gene Symbols: ENST00000319273.1, ENST00000319273.2, ENST00000319273.3, ENST00000319273.4, ENST00000319273.5, ENST00000319273.6, ENST00000319273.7, ENST00000319273.8, ENST00000319273.9, NKA, NKNA, NM_003182, O60600, O60601, P20366, Q00072, Q53GH4, Q549V0, Q549V1, Q549V2, Q6FHM1, TAC2, TKN1_HUMAN, uc003uop.1, uc003uop.2, uc003uop.3, uc003uop.4, uc003uop.5, uc003uop.6
UCSC ID: ENST00000319273.10
RefSeq Accession: NM_003182
Protein: P20366 (aka TKN1_HUMAN)
CCDS: CCDS5649.1

-  Methods, Credits, and Use Restrictions
  Click here for details on how this gene model was made and data restrictions if any.