Human Gene TUBA4A (ENST00000248437.9) from GENCODE V38
Description: Homo sapiens tubulin alpha 4a (TUBA4A), transcript variant 1, mRNA. (from RefSeq NM_006000) RefSeq Summary (NM_006000): Microtubules of the eukaryotic cytoskeleton perform essential and diverse functions and are composed of a heterodimer of alpha and beta tubulin. The genes encoding these microtubule constituents are part of the tubulin superfamily, which is composed of six distinct families. Genes from the alpha, beta and gamma tubulin families are found in all eukaryotes. The alpha and beta tubulins represent the major components of microtubules, while gamma tubulin plays a critical role in the nucleation of microtubule assembly. There are multiple alpha and beta tubulin genes and they are highly conserved among and between species. This gene encodes an alpha tubulin that is a highly conserved homolog of a rat testis-specific alpha tubulin. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jun 2013]. Gencode Transcript: ENST00000248437.9 Gencode Gene: ENSG00000127824.15 Transcript (Including UTRs) Position: hg38 chr2:219,249,710-219,253,918 Size: 4,209 Total Exon Count: 4 Strand: - Coding Region Position: hg38 chr2:219,250,352-219,253,858 Size: 3,507 Coding Exon Count: 4
ID:TBA4A_HUMAN DESCRIPTION: RecName: Full=Tubulin alpha-4A chain; AltName: Full=Alpha-tubulin 1; AltName: Full=Testis-specific alpha-tubulin; AltName: Full=Tubulin H2-alpha; AltName: Full=Tubulin alpha-1 chain; FUNCTION: Tubulin is the major constituent of microtubules. It binds two moles of GTP, one at an exchangeable site on the beta chain and one at a non-exchangeable site on the alpha-chain. SUBUNIT: Dimer of alpha and beta chains. SUBCELLULAR LOCATION: Cytoplasm, cytoskeleton. PTM: Some glutamate residues at the C-terminus are polyglutamylated. This modification occurs exclusively on glutamate residues and results in polyglutamate chains on the gamma-carboxyl group. Also monoglycylated but not polyglycylated due to the absence of functional TTLL10 in human. Monoglycylation is mainly limited to tubulin incorporated into axonemes (cilia and flagella) whereas glutamylation is prevalent in neuronal cells, centrioles, axonemes, and the mitotic spindle. Both modifications can coexist on the same protein on adjacent residues, and lowering glycylation levels increases polyglutamylation, and reciprocally. The precise function of such modifications is still unclear but they regulate the assembly and dynamics of axonemal microtubules (Probable). PTM: Acetylation of alpha-tubulins at Lys-40 stabilizes microtubules and affects affinity and processivity of microtubule motors. This modification has a role in multiple cellular functions, ranging from cell motility, cell cycle progression or cell differentiation to intracellular trafficking and signaling (By similarity). MISCELLANEOUS: This tubulin does not have a C-terminal tyrosine. SIMILARITY: Belongs to the tubulin family. WEB RESOURCE: Name=NIEHS-SNPs; URL="http://egp.gs.washington.edu/data/tuba1/"; WEB RESOURCE: Name=Wikipedia; Note=Tubulin entry; URL="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tubulin";
The RNAfold program from the Vienna RNA Package is used to perform the secondary structure predictions and folding calculations. The estimated folding energy is in kcal/mol. The more negative the energy, the more secondary structure the RNA is likely to have.
ModBase Predicted Comparative 3D Structure on P68366
The pictures above may be empty if there is no ModBase structure for the protein. The ModBase structure frequently covers just a fragment of the protein. You may be asked to log onto ModBase the first time you click on the pictures. It is simplest after logging in to just click on the picture again to get to the specific info on that model.
Orthologous Genes in Other Species
Orthologies between human, mouse, and rat are computed by taking the best BLASTP hit, and filtering out non-syntenic hits. For more distant species reciprocal-best BLASTP hits are used. Note that the absence of an ortholog in the table below may reflect incomplete annotations in the other species rather than a true absence of the orthologous gene.