Human Gene PTGS1 (ENST00000223423.8) from GENCODE V43
  Description: Homo sapiens prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase 1 (PTGS1), transcript variant 2, mRNA. (from RefSeq NM_080591)
RefSeq Summary (NM_080591): This is one of two genes encoding similar enzymes that catalyze the conversion of arachinodate to prostaglandin. The encoded protein regulates angiogenesis in endothelial cells, and is inhibited by nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs such as aspirin. Based on its ability to function as both a cyclooxygenase and as a peroxidase, the encoded protein has been identified as a moonlighting protein. The protein may promote cell proliferation during tumor progression. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Jan 2014].
Gencode Transcript: ENST00000223423.8
Gencode Gene: ENSG00000095303.17
Transcript (Including UTRs)
   Position: hg38 chr9:122,371,080-122,393,178 Size: 22,099 Total Exon Count: 11 Strand: +
Coding Region
   Position: hg38 chr9:122,371,085-122,392,544 Size: 21,460 Coding Exon Count: 11 

Page IndexSequence and LinksUniProtKB CommentsPrimersMalaCardsCTD
RNA-Seq ExpressionMicroarray ExpressionRNA StructureProtein StructureOther SpeciesGO Annotations
mRNA DescriptionsPathwaysOther NamesMethods
Data last updated at UCSC: 2023-02-17 13:02:02

-  Sequence and Links to Tools and Databases
Genomic Sequence (chr9:122,371,080-122,393,178)mRNA (may differ from genome)Protein (562 aa)
Gene SorterGenome BrowserOther Species FASTAGene interactionsTable SchemaAlphaFold
BioGPSEnsemblEntrez GeneExonPrimerGencodeGeneCards

-  Comments and Description Text from UniProtKB
DESCRIPTION: RecName: Full=Prostaglandin G/H synthase 1; EC=; AltName: Full=Cyclooxygenase-1; Short=COX-1; AltName: Full=Prostaglandin H2 synthase 1; Short=PGH synthase 1; Short=PGHS-1; Short=PHS 1; AltName: Full=Prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase 1; Flags: Precursor;
FUNCTION: May play an important role in regulating or promoting cell proliferation in some normal and neoplastically transformed cells.
CATALYTIC ACTIVITY: Arachidonate + AH(2) + 2 O(2) = prostaglandin H(2) + A + H(2)O.
COFACTOR: Binds 1 heme B (iron-protoporphyrin IX) group per subunit (By similarity).
PATHWAY: Lipid metabolism; prostaglandin biosynthesis.
SUBUNIT: Homodimer.
SUBCELLULAR LOCATION: Microsome membrane; Peripheral membrane protein. Endoplasmic reticulum membrane; Peripheral membrane protein.
MISCELLANEOUS: This enzyme acts both as a dioxygenase and as a peroxidase.
MISCELLANEOUS: This enzyme is the target of nonsteroidal anti- inflammatory drugs such as aspirin.
SIMILARITY: Belongs to the prostaglandin G/H synthase family.
SIMILARITY: Contains 1 EGF-like domain.
SEQUENCE CAUTION: Sequence=CAI14716.1; Type=Erroneous gene model prediction;
WEB RESOURCE: Name=SeattleSNPs; URL="";

-  Primer design for this transcript

Primer3Plus can design qPCR Primers that straddle exon-exon-junctions, which amplify only cDNA, not genomic DNA.
Click here to load the transcript sequence and exon structure into Primer3Plus

Exonprimer can design one pair of Sanger sequencing primers around every exon, located in non-genic sequence.
Click here to open Exonprimer with this transcript

To design primers for a non-coding sequence, zoom to a region of interest and select from the drop-down menu: View > In External Tools > Primer3

-  MalaCards Disease Associations
  MalaCards Gene Search: PTGS1
Diseases sorted by gene-association score: chronic cystitis (12), gastric ulcer (11), urticaria (10), stomach disease (8), ovarian epithelial cancer (8), angioedema (7), familial adenomatous polyposis (7), kidney papillary necrosis (7), dyspepsia (6), active peptic ulcer disease (6), gastroesophageal reflux (6), antenatal bartter syndrome (6), pulmonary disease, chronic obstructive (6), morphine dependence (5), ureteral obstruction (5), hydrops, lactic acidosis, and sideroblastic anemia (5), osteoarthritis (4), colorectal cancer (4), rheumatic disease (2), myocardial infarction (2), autoinflammation, lipodystrophy, and dermatosis syndrome (2)

-  Comparative Toxicogenomics Database (CTD)
  The following chemicals interact with this gene           more ... click here to view the complete list

-  RNA-Seq Expression Data from GTEx (53 Tissues, 570 Donors)
  Highest median expression: 92.70 RPKM in Bladder
Total median expression: 516.16 RPKM

View in GTEx track of Genome Browser    View at GTEx portal     View GTEx Body Map

+  Microarray Expression Data
  Press "+" in the title bar above to open this section.

-  mRNA Secondary Structure of 3' and 5' UTRs
RegionFold EnergyBasesEnergy/Base
Display As
3' UTR -212.50634-0.335 Picture PostScript Text

The RNAfold program from the Vienna RNA Package is used to perform the secondary structure predictions and folding calculations. The estimated folding energy is in kcal/mol. The more negative the energy, the more secondary structure the RNA is likely to have.

-  Protein Domain and Structure Information
  InterPro Domains: Graphical view of domain structure
IPR000742 - EG-like_dom
IPR010255 - Haem_peroxidase
IPR002007 - Haem_peroxidase_animal
IPR019791 - Haem_peroxidase_animal_subgr

Pfam Domains:
PF03098 - Animal haem peroxidase

ModBase Predicted Comparative 3D Structure on P23219
The pictures above may be empty if there is no ModBase structure for the protein. The ModBase structure frequently covers just a fragment of the protein. You may be asked to log onto ModBase the first time you click on the pictures. It is simplest after logging in to just click on the picture again to get to the specific info on that model.

-  Orthologous Genes in Other Species
  Orthologies between human, mouse, and rat are computed by taking the best BLASTP hit, and filtering out non-syntenic hits. For more distant species reciprocal-best BLASTP hits are used. Note that the absence of an ortholog in the table below may reflect incomplete annotations in the other species rather than a true absence of the orthologous gene.
MouseRatZebrafishD. melanogasterC. elegansS. cerevisiae
Genome BrowserGenome BrowserNo orthologNo orthologNo orthologNo ortholog
Gene Details     
Gene Sorter     
Protein SequenceProtein Sequence    

-  Gene Ontology (GO) Annotations with Structured Vocabulary
  Molecular Function:
GO:0004601 peroxidase activity
GO:0004666 prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase activity
GO:0016491 oxidoreductase activity
GO:0020037 heme binding
GO:0046872 metal ion binding
GO:0051213 dioxygenase activity

Biological Process:
GO:0001516 prostaglandin biosynthetic process
GO:0006629 lipid metabolic process
GO:0006631 fatty acid metabolic process
GO:0006633 fatty acid biosynthetic process
GO:0006693 prostaglandin metabolic process
GO:0006805 xenobiotic metabolic process
GO:0006954 inflammatory response
GO:0006979 response to oxidative stress
GO:0008217 regulation of blood pressure
GO:0019371 cyclooxygenase pathway
GO:0055114 oxidation-reduction process
GO:0098869 cellular oxidant detoxification

Cellular Component:
GO:0005737 cytoplasm
GO:0005783 endoplasmic reticulum
GO:0005789 endoplasmic reticulum membrane
GO:0005794 Golgi apparatus
GO:0016020 membrane
GO:0031090 organelle membrane
GO:0043231 intracellular membrane-bounded organelle
GO:0070062 extracellular exosome

-  Descriptions from all associated GenBank mRNAs
  LF211804 - JP 2014500723-A/19307: Polycomb-Associated Non-Coding RNAs.
MA447381 - JP 2018138019-A/19307: Polycomb-Associated Non-Coding RNAs.
AK308222 - Homo sapiens cDNA, FLJ98170.
AK295221 - Homo sapiens cDNA FLJ61263 complete cds, highly similar to Prostaglandin G/H synthase 1 precursor (EC
LF205668 - JP 2014500723-A/13171: Polycomb-Associated Non-Coding RNAs.
MA441245 - JP 2018138019-A/13171: Polycomb-Associated Non-Coding RNAs.
BC029840 - Homo sapiens prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase 1 (prostaglandin G/H synthase and cyclooxygenase), mRNA (cDNA clone MGC:34214 IMAGE:5174923), complete cds.
AK290022 - Homo sapiens cDNA FLJ77449 complete cds, highly similar to Human prostaglandin endoperoxide synthase mRNA.
M59979 - Human prostaglandin endoperoxide synthase mRNA, complete cds.
AB590429 - Synthetic construct DNA, clone: pFN21AE1402, Homo sapiens PTGS1 gene for prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase 1, without stop codon, in Flexi system.
DQ180740 - Homo sapiens cyclooxygenase 1b1 mRNA, complete cds, alternatively spliced.
DQ180741 - Homo sapiens cyclooxygenase 1b2 mRNA, complete cds, alternatively spliced.
DQ180742 - Homo sapiens cyclooxygenase 1b3 mRNA, complete cds, alternatively spliced.
S78220 - prostaglandin endoperoxide synthase [human, platelets, mRNA, 1812 nt].
S36219 - prostaglandin G/H synthase {alternative splicing product} [human, lung fibroblast, clone HCO-T9, mRNA, 2324 nt].
S36271 - prostaglandin G/H synthase [human, lung fibroblast, mRNA, 2435 nt].
DQ892441 - Synthetic construct clone IMAGE:100005071; FLH186345.01X; RZPDo839D0771D prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase 1 (prostaglandin G/H synthase and cyclooxygenase) (PTGS1) gene, encodes complete protein.
DQ895652 - Synthetic construct Homo sapiens clone IMAGE:100010112; FLH186341.01L; RZPDo839D0761D prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase 1 (prostaglandin G/H synthase and cyclooxygenase) (PTGS1) gene, encodes complete protein.
AK304403 - Homo sapiens cDNA FLJ53280 complete cds, highly similar to Prostaglandin G/H synthase 1 precursor (EC
LF347015 - JP 2014500723-A/154518: Polycomb-Associated Non-Coding RNAs.
MA582592 - JP 2018138019-A/154518: Polycomb-Associated Non-Coding RNAs.
LF347016 - JP 2014500723-A/154519: Polycomb-Associated Non-Coding RNAs.
MA582593 - JP 2018138019-A/154519: Polycomb-Associated Non-Coding RNAs.
LF347018 - JP 2014500723-A/154521: Polycomb-Associated Non-Coding RNAs.
MA582595 - JP 2018138019-A/154521: Polycomb-Associated Non-Coding RNAs.
DL491511 - Novel nucleic acids.
DL490120 - Novel nucleic acids.
LF347019 - JP 2014500723-A/154522: Polycomb-Associated Non-Coding RNAs.
MA582596 - JP 2018138019-A/154522: Polycomb-Associated Non-Coding RNAs.
LF347021 - JP 2014500723-A/154524: Polycomb-Associated Non-Coding RNAs.
MA582598 - JP 2018138019-A/154524: Polycomb-Associated Non-Coding RNAs.
LF347022 - JP 2014500723-A/154525: Polycomb-Associated Non-Coding RNAs.
MA582599 - JP 2018138019-A/154525: Polycomb-Associated Non-Coding RNAs.
U63846 - Human cyclooxygenase-1 (PTSG1) mRNA, partial cds.
JD073437 - Sequence 54461 from Patent EP1572962.
JD483955 - Sequence 464979 from Patent EP1572962.
DL492176 - Novel nucleic acids.
LF347023 - JP 2014500723-A/154526: Polycomb-Associated Non-Coding RNAs.
MA582600 - JP 2018138019-A/154526: Polycomb-Associated Non-Coding RNAs.
JD501168 - Sequence 482192 from Patent EP1572962.
JD228202 - Sequence 209226 from Patent EP1572962.
JD245012 - Sequence 226036 from Patent EP1572962.
LF347024 - JP 2014500723-A/154527: Polycomb-Associated Non-Coding RNAs.
MA582601 - JP 2018138019-A/154527: Polycomb-Associated Non-Coding RNAs.
JD295012 - Sequence 276036 from Patent EP1572962.
JD251854 - Sequence 232878 from Patent EP1572962.
JD063296 - Sequence 44320 from Patent EP1572962.
JD048921 - Sequence 29945 from Patent EP1572962.
JD269138 - Sequence 250162 from Patent EP1572962.
JD193763 - Sequence 174787 from Patent EP1572962.

-  Biochemical and Signaling Pathways
  KEGG - Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes
hsa00590 - Arachidonic acid metabolism
hsa01100 - Metabolic pathways

BioCarta from NCI Cancer Genome Anatomy Project
h_sppaPathway - Aspirin Blocks Signaling Pathway Involved in Platelet Activation
h_AcetaminophenPathway - Mechanism of Acetaminophen Activity and Toxicity
h_eicosanoidPathway - Eicosanoid Metabolism

Reactome (by CSHL, EBI, and GO)

Protein P23219 (Reactome details) participates in the following event(s):

R-HSA-2314678 Aspirin acetylates PTGS1
R-HSA-140355 Arachidonic acid is oxidised to PGG2 by PTGS1
R-HSA-140359 PGG2 is reduced to PGH2 by PTGS1
R-HSA-2162123 Synthesis of Prostaglandins (PG) and Thromboxanes (TX)
R-HSA-2142753 Arachidonic acid metabolism
R-HSA-140180 COX reactions
R-HSA-8978868 Fatty acid metabolism
R-HSA-211945 Phase I - Functionalization of compounds
R-HSA-556833 Metabolism of lipids
R-HSA-211859 Biological oxidations
R-HSA-1430728 Metabolism

-  Other Names for This Gene
  Alternate Gene Symbols: A8K1V7, COX1, ENST00000223423.1, ENST00000223423.2, ENST00000223423.3, ENST00000223423.4, ENST00000223423.5, ENST00000223423.6, ENST00000223423.7, NM_080591, P23219, PGH1_HUMAN, Q15122, Q5T7T6, Q5T7T7, Q5T7T8, uc004bmf.1, uc004bmf.2, uc004bmf.3
UCSC ID: ENST00000223423.8
RefSeq Accession: NM_080591
Protein: P23219 (aka PGH1_HUMAN)
CCDS: CCDS6843.1

-  Methods, Credits, and Use Restrictions
  Click here for details on how this gene model was made and data restrictions if any.