Human Gene KYNU (ENST00000264170.9) from GENCODE V43
  Description: Homo sapiens kynureninase (KYNU), transcript variant 1, mRNA. (from RefSeq NM_003937)
RefSeq Summary (NM_003937): Kynureninase is a pyridoxal-5'-phosphate (pyridoxal-P) dependent enzyme that catalyzes the cleavage of L-kynurenine and L-3-hydroxykynurenine into anthranilic and 3-hydroxyanthranilic acids, respectively. Kynureninase is involved in the biosynthesis of NAD cofactors from tryptophan through the kynurenine pathway. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Nov 2010].
Gencode Transcript: ENST00000264170.9
Gencode Gene: ENSG00000115919.15
Transcript (Including UTRs)
   Position: hg38 chr2:142,877,664-143,055,833 Size: 178,170 Total Exon Count: 14 Strand: +
Coding Region
   Position: hg38 chr2:142,885,368-143,042,172 Size: 156,805 Coding Exon Count: 13 

Page IndexSequence and LinksUniProtKB CommentsPrimersMalaCardsCTD
RNA-Seq ExpressionMicroarray ExpressionRNA StructureProtein StructureOther SpeciesGO Annotations
mRNA DescriptionsPathwaysOther NamesMethods
Data last updated at UCSC: 2023-02-17 13:02:02

-  Sequence and Links to Tools and Databases
Genomic Sequence (chr2:142,877,664-143,055,833)mRNA (may differ from genome)Protein (465 aa)
Gene SorterGenome BrowserOther Species FASTAGene interactionsTable SchemaAlphaFold
BioGPSEnsemblEntrez GeneExonPrimerGencodeGeneCards

-  Comments and Description Text from UniProtKB
DESCRIPTION: RecName: Full=Kynureninase; EC=; AltName: Full=L-kynurenine hydrolase;
FUNCTION: Catalyzes the cleavage of L-kynurenine (L-Kyn) and L-3- hydroxykynurenine (L-3OHKyn) into anthranilic acid (AA) and 3- hydroxyanthranilic acid (3-OHAA), respectively. Has a preference for the L-3-hydroxy form. Also has cysteine-conjugate-beta-lyase activity.
CATALYTIC ACTIVITY: L-kynurenine + H(2)O = anthranilate + L- alanine.
CATALYTIC ACTIVITY: L-3-hydroxykynurenine + H(2)O = 3- hydroxyanthranilate + L-alanine.
COFACTOR: Pyridoxal phosphate.
ENZYME REGULATION: Inhibited by o-methoxybenzoylalanine (OMBA).
BIOPHYSICOCHEMICAL PROPERTIES: Kinetic parameters: KM=493 uM for L-kynurenine (at pH 7.0); KM=28.3 uM for DL-3-hydroxykynurenine (at pH 7.0); KM=3.0 uM for DL-3-hydroxykynurenine (at pH 7.9); pH dependence: Optimum pH is 8.25 with DL-3-hydroxykynurenine as substrate;
PATHWAY: Amino-acid degradation; L-kynurenine degradation; L- alanine and anthranilate from L-kynurenine: step 1/1.
PATHWAY: Cofactor biosynthesis; NAD(+) biosynthesis; quinolinate from L-kynurenine: step 2/3.
SUBUNIT: Homodimer.
TISSUE SPECIFICITY: Expressed in all tissues tested (heart, brain placenta, lung, liver, skeletal muscle, kidney and pancreas). Highest levels found in placenta, liver and lung. Expressed in all brain regions.
INDUCTION: Increased levels in several cerebral and systemic inflammatory conditions.
MASS SPECTROMETRY: Mass=52400; Method=MALDI; Range=1-465; Note=The reported mass is given to only three significant figures; Source=PubMed:11985583;
DISEASE: Note=Xanthurenic aciduria manifesting as massive urinary excretion of large amounts of kynurenine, 3-hydroxykynurenine and xanthurenic acid has been observed in an individual carrying a homozygous missense change in KYNU (PubMed:17334708). The urinary pattern in the patient suggests kynureninase deficiency and a block in the conversion of kynurenine and 3-hydroxykynurenine to anthranilate and 3-hydroxyanthranilate, respectively.
SIMILARITY: Belongs to the kynureninase family.
CAUTION: It has been reported that this enzyme possesses no measurable activity against L-kynurenine and is subject to inhibition by both L-kynurenine and D-kynurenine at pH 7.9 (PubMed:11985583).

-  Primer design for this transcript

Primer3Plus can design qPCR Primers that straddle exon-exon-junctions, which amplify only cDNA, not genomic DNA.
Click here to load the transcript sequence and exon structure into Primer3Plus

Exonprimer can design one pair of Sanger sequencing primers around every exon, located in non-genic sequence.
Click here to open Exonprimer with this transcript

To design primers for a non-coding sequence, zoom to a region of interest and select from the drop-down menu: View > In External Tools > Primer3

-  MalaCards Disease Associations
  MalaCards Gene Search: KYNU
Diseases sorted by gene-association score: hydroxykynureninuria* (1639), pellagra (17), transient cerebral ischemia (13)
* = Manually curated disease association

-  Comparative Toxicogenomics Database (CTD)
  The following chemicals interact with this gene           more ... click here to view the complete list

-  RNA-Seq Expression Data from GTEx (53 Tissues, 570 Donors)
  Highest median expression: 18.19 RPKM in Cells - EBV-transformed lymphocytes
Total median expression: 79.08 RPKM

View in GTEx track of Genome Browser    View at GTEx portal     View GTEx Body Map

+  Microarray Expression Data
  Press "+" in the title bar above to open this section.

-  mRNA Secondary Structure of 3' and 5' UTRs
RegionFold EnergyBasesEnergy/Base
Display As
5' UTR -25.3092-0.275 Picture PostScript Text
3' UTR -3622.8613661-0.265 Picture PostScript Text

The RNAfold program from the Vienna RNA Package is used to perform the secondary structure predictions and folding calculations. The estimated folding energy is in kcal/mol. The more negative the energy, the more secondary structure the RNA is likely to have.

-  Protein Domain and Structure Information
  InterPro Domains: Graphical view of domain structure
IPR000192 - Aminotrans_V/Cys_dSase
IPR010111 - Kynureninase
IPR015424 - PyrdxlP-dep_Trfase_major_dom
IPR015421 - PyrdxlP-dep_Trfase_major_sub1
IPR015422 - PyrdxlP-dep_Trfase_major_sub2

Pfam Domains:
PF00266 - Aminotransferase class-V

Protein Data Bank (PDB) 3-D Structure
MuPIT help
2HZP - X-ray MuPIT 3E9K - X-ray MuPIT

ModBase Predicted Comparative 3D Structure on Q16719
The pictures above may be empty if there is no ModBase structure for the protein. The ModBase structure frequently covers just a fragment of the protein. You may be asked to log onto ModBase the first time you click on the pictures. It is simplest after logging in to just click on the picture again to get to the specific info on that model.

-  Orthologous Genes in Other Species
  Orthologies between human, mouse, and rat are computed by taking the best BLASTP hit, and filtering out non-syntenic hits. For more distant species reciprocal-best BLASTP hits are used. Note that the absence of an ortholog in the table below may reflect incomplete annotations in the other species rather than a true absence of the orthologous gene.
MouseRatZebrafishD. melanogasterC. elegansS. cerevisiae
No orthologGenome BrowserGenome BrowserNo orthologGenome BrowserGenome Browser
     Gene Details
     Gene Sorter
 RGDEnsembl WormBaseSGD
 Protein SequenceProtein Sequence Protein SequenceProtein Sequence
 AlignmentAlignment AlignmentAlignment

-  Gene Ontology (GO) Annotations with Structured Vocabulary
  Molecular Function:
GO:0003824 catalytic activity
GO:0016787 hydrolase activity
GO:0030170 pyridoxal phosphate binding
GO:0030429 kynureninase activity
GO:0042803 protein homodimerization activity

Biological Process:
GO:0006569 tryptophan catabolic process
GO:0009435 NAD biosynthetic process
GO:0019363 pyridine nucleotide biosynthetic process
GO:0019441 tryptophan catabolic process to kynurenine
GO:0019442 tryptophan catabolic process to acetyl-CoA
GO:0019805 quinolinate biosynthetic process
GO:0034341 response to interferon-gamma
GO:0034516 response to vitamin B6
GO:0043420 anthranilate metabolic process
GO:0097053 L-kynurenine catabolic process

Cellular Component:
GO:0005654 nucleoplasm
GO:0005737 cytoplasm
GO:0005739 mitochondrion
GO:0005829 cytosol

-  Descriptions from all associated GenBank mRNAs
  LP747426 - Sequence 13 from Patent WO2018009939.
AK223426 - Homo sapiens mRNA for kynureninase (L-kynurenine hydrolase) variant, clone: FCC110E06.
U57721 - Human L-kynurenine hydrolase mRNA, complete cds.
AK315343 - Homo sapiens cDNA, FLJ96385, highly similar to Homo sapiens kynureninase (L-kynurenine hydrolase) (KYNU), mRNA.
AK292095 - Homo sapiens cDNA FLJ78002 complete cds, highly similar to Homo sapiens kynureninase (L-kynurenine hydrolase) (KYNU), mRNA.
AK290900 - Homo sapiens cDNA FLJ77887 complete cds, highly similar to Human L-kynurenine hydrolase mRNA.
CR457423 - Homo sapiens full open reading frame cDNA clone RZPDo834D1114D for gene KYNU, kynureninase (L-kynurenine hydrolase); complete cds, incl. stopcodon.
BC000879 - Homo sapiens kynureninase (L-kynurenine hydrolase), mRNA (cDNA clone MGC:5080 IMAGE:3461828), complete cds.
HQ447861 - Synthetic construct Homo sapiens clone IMAGE:100071208; CCSB002729_01 kynureninase (L-kynurenine hydrolase) (KYNU) gene, encodes complete protein.
KJ892658 - Synthetic construct Homo sapiens clone ccsbBroadEn_02052 KYNU gene, encodes complete protein.
KR709639 - Synthetic construct Homo sapiens clone CCSBHm_00004634 KYNU (KYNU) mRNA, encodes complete protein.
CU674438 - Synthetic construct Homo sapiens gateway clone IMAGE:100018809 5' read KYNU mRNA.
JD168891 - Sequence 149915 from Patent EP1572962.
JD040512 - Sequence 21536 from Patent EP1572962.
JD295697 - Sequence 276721 from Patent EP1572962.
JD327755 - Sequence 308779 from Patent EP1572962.
JD432781 - Sequence 413805 from Patent EP1572962.
DQ591425 - Homo sapiens piRNA piR-58537, complete sequence.
DQ599157 - Homo sapiens piRNA piR-37223, complete sequence.
JD116176 - Sequence 97200 from Patent EP1572962.

-  Biochemical and Signaling Pathways
  KEGG - Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes
hsa00380 - Tryptophan metabolism
hsa01100 - Metabolic pathways

BioCyc Knowledge Library
NADSYN-PWY - NAD de novo biosynthesis
PWY-5651 - L-tryptophan degradation to 2-amino-3-carboxymuconate semialdehyde
PWY-6309 - L-tryptophan degradation XI (mammalian, via kynurenine)
PWY66-401 - superpathway of L-tryptophan utilization
TRYPTOPHAN-DEGRADATION-1 - L-tryptophan degradation (kynurenine pathway)

Reactome (by CSHL, EBI, and GO)

Protein Q16719 (Reactome details) participates in the following event(s):

R-HSA-71217 3-hydroxykynurenine + H2O => 3-hydroxyanthranilate + alanine
R-HSA-71240 Tryptophan catabolism
R-HSA-6788656 Histidine, lysine, phenylalanine, tyrosine, proline and tryptophan catabolism
R-HSA-71291 Metabolism of nitrogenous molecules
R-HSA-1430728 Metabolism

-  Other Names for This Gene
  Alternate Gene Symbols: B2RCZ5, D3DP79, ENST00000264170.1, ENST00000264170.2, ENST00000264170.3, ENST00000264170.4, ENST00000264170.5, ENST00000264170.6, ENST00000264170.7, ENST00000264170.8, KYNU_HUMAN, NM_003937, Q16719, Q6I9T2, Q9BVW3, uc002tvl.1, uc002tvl.2, uc002tvl.3, uc002tvl.4, uc002tvl.5
UCSC ID: ENST00000264170.9
RefSeq Accession: NM_003937
Protein: Q16719 (aka KYNU_HUMAN)
CCDS: CCDS2183.1

-  Methods, Credits, and Use Restrictions
  Click here for details on how this gene model was made and data restrictions if any.