Human Gene TGFBR2 (ENST00000295754.10) from GENCODE V43
Description: Homo sapiens transforming growth factor beta receptor 2 (TGFBR2), transcript variant 2, mRNA. (from RefSeq NM_003242) RefSeq Summary (NM_003242): The protein encoded by this gene is a transmembrane protein that has a protein kinase domain, forms a heterodimeric complex with TGF-beta receptor type-1, and binds TGF-beta. This receptor/ligand complex phosphorylates proteins, which then enter the nucleus and regulate the transcription of genes related to cell proliferation, cell cycle arrest, wound healing, immunosuppression, and tumorigenesis. Mutations in this gene have been associated with Marfan Syndrome, Loeys-Deitz Aortic Aneurysm Syndrome, and the development of various types of tumors. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been characterized. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2017]. Gencode Transcript: ENST00000295754.10 Gencode Gene: ENSG00000163513.19 Transcript (Including UTRs) Position: hg38 chr3:30,606,601-30,694,142 Size: 87,542 Total Exon Count: 7 Strand: + Coding Region Position: hg38 chr3:30,606,884-30,691,599 Size: 84,716 Coding Exon Count: 7
ID:TGFR2_HUMAN DESCRIPTION: RecName: Full=TGF-beta receptor type-2; Short=TGFR-2; EC=18.104.22.168; AltName: Full=TGF-beta type II receptor; AltName: Full=Transforming growth factor-beta receptor type II; Short=TGF-beta receptor type II; Short=TbetaR-II; Flags: Precursor; FUNCTION: Transmembrane serine/threonine kinase forming with the TGF-beta type I serine/threonine kinase receptor, TGFBR1, the non- promiscuous receptor for the TGF-beta cytokines TGFB1, TGFB2 and TGFB3. Transduces the TGFB1, TGFB2 and TGFB3 signal from the cell surface to the cytoplasm and is thus regulating a plethora of physiological and pathological processes including cell cycle arrest in epithelial and hematopoietic cells, control of mesenchymal cell proliferation and differentiation, wound healing, extracellular matrix production, immunosuppression and carcinogenesis. The formation of the receptor complex composed of 2 TGFBR1 and 2 TGFBR2 molecules symmetrically bound to the cytokine dimer results in the phosphorylation and the activation of TGFRB1 by the constitutively active TGFBR2. Activated TGFBR1 phosphorylates SMAD2 which dissociates from the receptor and interacts with SMAD4. The SMAD2-SMAD4 complex is subsequently translocated to the nucleus where it modulates the transcription of the TGF-beta-regulated genes. This constitutes the canonical SMAD-dependent TGF-beta signaling cascade. Also involved in non- canonical, SMAD-independent TGF-beta signaling pathways. CATALYTIC ACTIVITY: ATP + [receptor-protein] = ADP + [receptor- protein] phosphate. COFACTOR: Magnesium or manganese (By similarity). SUBUNIT: Homodimer. Heterohexamer; TGFB1, TGFB2 and TGFB3 homodimeric ligands assemble a functional receptor composed of two TGFBR1 and TGFBR2 heterodimers to form a ligand-receptor heterohexamer. The respective affinity of TGFRB1 and TGFRB2 for the ligands may modulate the kinetics of assembly of the receptor and may explain the different biological activities of TGFB1, TGFB2 and TGFB3. Interacts with DAXX. Interacts with TCTEX1D4. Interacts with ZFYVE9; ZFYVE9 recruits SMAD2 and SMAD3 to the TGF- beta receptor. Interacts with and is activated by SCUBE3; this interaction does not affect TGFB1-binding to TGFBR2. Interacts with VPS39; this interaction is independent of the receptor kinase activity and of the presence of TGF-beta. INTERACTION: Q9UER7:DAXX; NbExp=2; IntAct=EBI-296151, EBI-77321; Q8IX30:SCUBE3; NbExp=6; IntAct=EBI-296151, EBI-4479975; P01137:TGFB1; NbExp=4; IntAct=EBI-296151, EBI-779636; P07200:TGFB1 (xeno); NbExp=2; IntAct=EBI-296151, EBI-907660; SUBCELLULAR LOCATION: Cell membrane; Single-pass type I membrane protein. PTM: Phosphorylated on a Ser/Thr residue in the cytoplasmic domain. DISEASE: Defects in TGFBR2 are the cause of hereditary non- polyposis colorectal cancer type 6 (HNPCC6) [MIM:614331]. Mutations in more than one gene locus can be involved alone or in combination in the production of the HNPCC phenotype (also called Lynch syndrome). Most families with clinically recognized HNPCC have mutations in either MLH1 or MSH2 genes. HNPCC is an autosomal, dominantly inherited disease associated with marked increase in cancer susceptibility. It is characterized by a familial predisposition to early onset colorectal carcinoma (CRC) and extra-colonic cancers of the gastrointestinal, urological and female reproductive tracts. HNPCC is reported to be the most common form of inherited colorectal cancer in the Western world, and accounts for 15% of all colon cancers. Cancers in HNPCC originate within benign neoplastic polyps termed adenomas. Clinically, HNPCC is often divided into two subgroups. Type I: hereditary predisposition to colorectal cancer, a young age of onset, and carcinoma observed in the proximal colon. Type II: patients have an increased risk for cancers in certain tissues such as the uterus, ovary, breast, stomach, small intestine, skin, and larynx in addition to the colon. Diagnosis of classical HNPCC is based on the Amsterdam criteria: 3 or more relatives affected by colorectal cancer, one a first degree relative of the other two; 2 or more generation affected; 1 or more colorectal cancers presenting before 50 years of age; exclusion of hereditary polyposis syndromes. The term "suspected HNPCC" or "incomplete HNPCC" can be used to describe families who do not or only partially fulfill the Amsterdam criteria, but in whom a genetic basis for colon cancer is strongly suspected. HNPCC6 is a type of colorectal cancer complying with the clinical criteria of HNPCC, except that the onset of cancer was beyond 50 years of age in all cases. DISEASE: Defects in TGFBR2 are a cause of esophageal cancer (ESCR) [MIM:133239]. DISEASE: Defects in TGFBR2 are the cause of Loeys-Dietz syndrome type 1B (LDS1B) [MIM:610168]. LDS1 is an aortic aneurysm syndrome with widespread systemic involvement. The disorder is characterized by arterial tortuosity and aneurysms, craniosynostosis, hypertelorism, and bifid uvula or cleft palate. Other findings include exotropy, micrognathia and retrognathia, structural brain abnormalities, intellectual deficit, congenital heart disease, translucent skin, joint hyperlaxity and aneurysm with dissection throughout the arterial tree. DISEASE: Defects in TGFBR2 are the cause of Loeys-Dietz syndrome type 2B (LDS2B) [MIM:610380]. An aortic aneurysm syndrome with widespread systemic involvement. Physical findings include prominent joint laxity, easy bruising, wide and atrophic scars, velvety and translucent skin with easily visible veins, spontaneous rupture of the spleen or bowel, diffuse arterial aneurysms and dissections, and catastrophic complications of pregnancy, including rupture of the gravid uterus and the arteries, either during pregnancy or in the immediate postpartum period. LDS2 is characterized by the absence of craniofacial abnormalities with the exception of bifid uvula that can be present in some patients. Note=TGFBR2 mutations Cys-460 and His- 460 have been reported to be associated with thoracic aortic aneurysms and dissection (TAAD). This phenotype, also known as thoracic aortic aneurysms type 3 (AAT3), is distinguised from LDS2B by having aneurysms restricted to thoracic aorta. As individuals carrying these mutations also exhibit descending aortic disease and aneurysms of other arteries (PubMed:16027248), they have been considered as LDS2B by the OMIM resource. SIMILARITY: Belongs to the protein kinase superfamily. TKL Ser/Thr protein kinase family. TGFB receptor subfamily. SIMILARITY: Contains 1 protein kinase domain. WEB RESOURCE: Name=GeneReviews; URL="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/sites/GeneTests/lab/gene/TGFBR2"; WEB RESOURCE: Name=NIEHS-SNPs; URL="http://egp.gs.washington.edu/data/tgfbr2/";
The RNAfold program from the Vienna RNA Package is used to perform the secondary structure predictions and folding calculations. The estimated folding energy is in kcal/mol. The more negative the energy, the more secondary structure the RNA is likely to have.
ModBase Predicted Comparative 3D Structure on P37173
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Orthologous Genes in Other Species
Orthologies between human, mouse, and rat are computed by taking the best BLASTP hit, and filtering out non-syntenic hits. For more distant species reciprocal-best BLASTP hits are used. Note that the absence of an ortholog in the table below may reflect incomplete annotations in the other species rather than a true absence of the orthologous gene.