Human Gene ACVR2B (ENST00000352511.5) from GENCODE V44
Description: Homo sapiens activin A receptor type 2B (ACVR2B), mRNA. (from RefSeq NM_001106) RefSeq Summary (NM_001106): Activins are dimeric growth and differentiation factors which belong to the transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) superfamily of structurally related signaling proteins. Activins signal through a heteromeric complex of receptor serine kinases which include at least two type I (I and IB) and two type II (II and IIB) receptors. These receptors are all transmembrane proteins, composed of a ligand-binding extracellular domain with cysteine-rich region, a transmembrane domain, and a cytoplasmic domain with predicted serine/threonine specificity. Type I receptors are essential for signaling; and type II receptors are required for binding ligands and for expression of type I receptors. Type I and II receptors form a stable complex after ligand binding, resulting in phosphorylation of type I receptors by type II receptors. Type II receptors are considered to be constitutively active kinases. This gene encodes activin A type IIB receptor, which displays a 3- to 4-fold higher affinity for the ligand than activin A type II receptor. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]. Gencode Transcript: ENST00000352511.5 Gencode Gene: ENSG00000114739.14 Transcript (Including UTRs) Position: hg38 chr3:38,453,890-38,493,142 Size: 39,253 Total Exon Count: 11 Strand: + Coding Region Position: hg38 chr3:38,454,323-38,483,332 Size: 29,010 Coding Exon Count: 11
ID:AVR2B_HUMAN DESCRIPTION: RecName: Full=Activin receptor type-2B; EC=220.127.116.11; AltName: Full=Activin receptor type IIB; Short=ACTR-IIB; Flags: Precursor; FUNCTION: Transmembrane serine/threonine kinase activin type-2 receptor forming an activin receptor complex with activin type-1 serine/threonine kinase receptors (ACVR1, ACVR1B or ACVR1c). Transduces the activin signal from the cell surface to the cytoplasm and is thus regulating many physiological and pathological processes including neuronal differentiation and neuronal survival, hair follicle development and cycling, FSH production by the pituitary gland, wound healing, extracellular matrix production, immunosuppression and carcinogenesis. Activin is also thought to have a paracrine or autocrine role in follicular development in the ovary. Within the receptor complex, the type-2 receptors act as a primary activin receptors (binds activin-A/INHBA, activin-B/INHBB as well as inhibin-A/INHA-INHBA). The type-1 receptors like ACVR1B act as downstream transducers of activin signals. Activin binds to type-2 receptor at the plasma membrane and activates its serine-threonine kinase. The activated receptor type-2 then phosphorylates and activates the type-1 receptor. Once activated, the type-1 receptor binds and phosphorylates the SMAD proteins SMAD2 and SMAD3, on serine residues of the C-terminal tail. Soon after their association with the activin receptor and subsequent phosphorylation, SMAD2 and SMAD3 are released into the cytoplasm where they interact with the common partner SMAD4. This SMAD complex translocates into the nucleus where it mediates activin-induced transcription. Inhibitory SMAD7, which is recruited to ACVR1B through FKBP1A, can prevent the association of SMAD2 and SMAD3 with the activin receptor complex, thereby blocking the activin signal. Activin signal transduction is also antagonized by the binding to the receptor of inhibin-B via the IGSF1 inhibin coreceptor. CATALYTIC ACTIVITY: ATP + [receptor-protein] = ADP + [receptor- protein] phosphate. COFACTOR: Magnesium or manganese (By similarity). SUBUNIT: Forms an activin receptor complex with activin type II receptors such as ACVR1B. Interacts with VPS39. SUBCELLULAR LOCATION: Cell membrane; Single-pass type I membrane protein (By similarity). PTM: Phosphorylated. Constitutive phosphorylation is in part catalyzed by its own kinase activity. DISEASE: Defects in ACVR2B are the cause of visceral heterotaxy autosomal type 4 (HTX4) [MIM:613751]. A form of visceral heterotaxy, a complex disorder due to disruption of the normal left-right asymmetry of the thoracoabdominal organs. It results in an abnormal arrangement of visceral organs, and a wide variety of congenital defects. Clinical features of visceral heterotaxy type 4 include dextrocardia, right aortic arch and a right-sided spleen, anomalies of the inferior and the superior vena cava, atrial ventricular canal defect with dextro-transposed great arteries, pulmonary stenosis, polysplenia and midline liver. SIMILARITY: Belongs to the protein kinase superfamily. TKL Ser/Thr protein kinase family. TGFB receptor subfamily. SIMILARITY: Contains 1 protein kinase domain. WEB RESOURCE: Name=GeneReviews; URL="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/sites/GeneTests/lab/gene/ACVR2B";
The RNAfold program from the Vienna RNA Package is used to perform the secondary structure predictions and folding calculations. The estimated folding energy is in kcal/mol. The more negative the energy, the more secondary structure the RNA is likely to have.
ModBase Predicted Comparative 3D Structure on Q13705
The pictures above may be empty if there is no ModBase structure for the protein. The ModBase structure frequently covers just a fragment of the protein. You may be asked to log onto ModBase the first time you click on the pictures. It is simplest after logging in to just click on the picture again to get to the specific info on that model.
Orthologous Genes in Other Species
Orthologies between human, mouse, and rat are computed by taking the best BLASTP hit, and filtering out non-syntenic hits. For more distant species reciprocal-best BLASTP hits are used. Note that the absence of an ortholog in the table below may reflect incomplete annotations in the other species rather than a true absence of the orthologous gene.
R-HSA-1181153 Activin A/AB/B binds Activin Receptor ACVR2A/B:ACVR1B R-HSA-2470483 Activin AB/B binds Activin Receptor ACVR2A/B:ACVR1C R-HSA-1225894 Type II Activin Receptor (ActRIIB/ACVR2B) phosphorylates Type I Activin Receptor (ActRIC/ACVR1C) in response to NODAL R-HSA-1181155 The NODAL Receptor binds NODAL ligands R-HSA-1181351 LEFTY binds the EGF-CFC coreceptor in the NODAL receptor R-HSA-202604 Formation of a heteromeric BMP receptor complex R-HSA-1181149 ACVR2A/B (ActRIIA/B) phosphorylates ACVR1B (ActRIB, ALK4) in response to Activin R-HSA-2470508 ACVR2A/B (ActRIIA/B) phosphorylates ACVR1C (ActRIC, ALK7) in response to Activin R-HSA-201475 I-Smad competes with R-Smad1/5/8 for type I receptor R-HSA-201648 An anchoring protein, Endofin, recruits R-Smad1/5/8 R-HSA-201821 I-Smad binds to type I receptor, preventing Smad1/5/8 from being activated R-HSA-201443 Type II receptor phosphorylates type I receptor R-HSA-201453 Phospho-R-Smad1/5/8 dissociates from the receptor complex R-HSA-201476 Activated type I receptor phosphorylates R-Smad1/5/8 directly R-HSA-201457 BMP2 binds to the receptor complex R-HSA-1181156 Type II Activin Receptor (ActRII/ACVR2) phosphorylates Type I Activin Receptor (ActRIB/ACVR1B) in response to NODAL R-HSA-1181355 Phosphorylation of R-SMAD2/3 by NODAL receptor R-HSA-1549526 Phosphorylation of SMAD2/3 by Activin:Activin Receptor R-HSA-1502540 Signaling by Activin R-HSA-1181150 Signaling by NODAL R-HSA-1433617 Regulation of signaling by NODAL R-HSA-201451 Signaling by BMP R-HSA-9006936 Signaling by TGF-beta family members R-HSA-1266738 Developmental Biology R-HSA-162582 Signal Transduction