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OBJECTIVEAlthough the serum and glucocorticoid-inducible protein kinase 1 (SGK1) appears to be involved in controlling epithelial Na(+) absorption, its role in this physiologically important ion transport process is undefined. As SGK1 activity is dependent upon target of rapamycin complex 2 (TORC2)-catalysed phosphorylation of SGK1-Ser(422) , we have explored the effects of inhibiting TORC2 and/or TORC1 upon the hormonal control of Na(+) absorption.
METHODSNa(+) absorption was quantified electrometrically in mouse cortical collecting duct cells (mpkCCD) grown to confluence on permeable membranes. Kinase activities were assessed by monitoring endogenous protein phosphorylation, with or without TORC1/2 inhibitors (TORIN1 and PP242) and the TORC1 inhibitor: rapamycin.
RESULTSInhibition of TORC1/2 (TORIN1, PP242) suppressed basal SGK1 activity, prevented insulin- and dexamethasone-induced SGK1 activation, and caused modest (10-20%) inhibition of basal Na(+) absorption and substantial (∼80%) inhibition of insulin/dexamethasone-induced Na(+) transport. Inhibition of TORC1 did not impair SGK1 activation or insulin-induced Na(+) transport, but did inhibit (∼80%) dexamethasone-induced Na(+) absorption. Arginine vasopressin stimulated Na(+) absorption via a TORC1/2-independent mechanism.
CONCLUSIONSTarget of rapamycin complex 2, but not TORC1, is important to SGK1 activation. Signalling via phosphoinositide-3-kinase/TORC2/SGK1 can explain insulin-induced Na(+) absorption. TORC2, but not TORC1, is also involved in glucocorticoid-induced SGK1 activation but its role is permissive. Glucocorticoid-induced Na(+) transport displayed a requirement for TORC1 activity. Therefore, TORC1 and TORC2 contribute to the regulation of Na(+) absorption. Pharmacological manipulation of TORC1/2 signalling may provide novel therapies for Na(+)-sensitive hypertension.
insulin- → TORC1/2: " Inhibition of TORC1/2 ( TORIN1, PP242 ) suppressed basal SGK1 activity, prevented insulin- and dexamethasone induced SGK1 activation, and caused modest ( 10-20 % ) inhibition of basal Na ( + ) absorption and substantial ( ~80 % ) inhibition of insulin/dexamethasone induced Na ( + ) transport "
SGK1 → TORC1: " Inhibition of TORC1 did not impair SGK1 activation or insulin induced Na ( + ) transport, but did inhibit ( ~80 % ) dexamethasone induced Na ( + ) absorption "