We have a suspicion that you are an automated web bot software, not a real user. To keep our site fast for other users, we have slowed down this page. The slowdown will gradually disappear. If you think this is a mistake, please contact us at genome-www@soe.ucsc.edu. Also note that all data for hgGeneGraph can be obtained through our public MySQL server and all our software source code is available and can be installed locally onto your own computer. If you are unsure how to use these resources, do not hesitate to contact us.
UCSC Genome Browser Gene Interaction Graph
Gene interactions and pathways from curated databases and text-mining
Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 2011, PMID: 21767558

Cadmium induces autophagy through ROS-dependent activation of the LKB1-AMPK signaling in skin epidermal cells.

Son, Young-Ok; Wang, Xin; Hitron, John Andrew; Zhang, Zhuo; Cheng, Senping; Budhraja, Amit; Ding, Songze; Lee, Jeong-Chae; Shi, Xianglin

Cadmium is a toxic heavy metal which is environmentally and occupationally relevant. The mechanisms underlying cadmium-induced autophagy are not yet completely understood. The present study shows that cadmium induces autophagy, as demonstrated by the increase of LC3-II formation and the GFP-LC3 puncta cells. The induction of autophagosomes was directly visualized by electron microscopy in cadmium-exposed skin epidermal cells. Blockage of LKB1 or AMPK by siRNA transfection suppressed cadmium-induced autophagy. Cadmium-induced autophagy was inhibited in dominant-negative AMPK-transfected cells, whereas it was accelerated in cells transfected with the constitutively active form of AMPK. mTOR signaling, a negative regulator of autophagy, was downregulated in cadmium-exposed cells. In addition, cadmium generated reactive oxygen species (ROS) at relatively low levels, and caused poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP) activation and ATP depletion. Inhibition of PARP by pharmacological inhibitors or its siRNA transfection suppressed ATP reduction and autophagy in cadmium-exposed cells. Furthermore, cadmium-induced autophagy signaling was attenuated by either exogenous addition of catalase and superoxide dismutase, or by overexpression of these enzymes. Consequently, these results suggest that cadmium-mediated ROS generation causes PARP activation and energy depletion, and eventually induces autophagy through the activation of LKB1-AMPK signaling and the down-regulation of mTOR in skin epidermal cells.

Document information provided by NCBI PubMed

Text Mining Data

mTOR ⊣ PARP: " Consequently, these results suggest that cadmium mediated ROS generation causes PARP activation and energy depletion, and eventually induces autophagy through the activation of LKB1-AMPK signaling and the down-regulation of mTOR in skin epidermal cells "

LKB1-AMPK → PARP: " Consequently, these results suggest that cadmium mediated ROS generation causes PARP activation and energy depletion, and eventually induces autophagy through the activation of LKB1-AMPK signaling and the down-regulation of mTOR in skin epidermal cells "

LKB1-AMPK → PARP: " Consequently, these results suggest that cadmium mediated ROS generation causes PARP activation and energy depletion, and eventually induces autophagy through the activation of LKB1-AMPK signaling and the down-regulation of mTOR in skin epidermal cells "

Manually curated Databases

No curated data.