J Pharmacol Exp Ther 2011,
Song, Shaoming; Abdelmohsen, Kotb; Zhang, Yongqing; Becker, Kevin G; Gorospe, Myriam; Bernier, Michel
Interleukin-6 (IL-6) is a proinflammatory cytokine that exerts a wide range of cellular, physiological, and pathophysiological responses. Pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (PDTC) antagonizes the cellular responsiveness to IL-6 through impairment in signal transducer and activator of transcription-3 activation and downstream signaling. To further elucidate the biological properties of PDTC, global gene expression profiling of human HepG2 hepatocellular carcinoma cells was carried out after treatment with PDTC or IL-6 for up to 8 h. Through an unbiased pathway analysis method, gene array analysis showed dramatic and temporal differences in expression changes in response to PDTC versus IL-6. A significant number of genes associated with metabolic pathways, inflammation, translation, and mitochondrial function were changed, with ribosomal protein genes and DNA damage-inducible transcript 4 protein (DDIT4) primarily up-regulated with PDTC but down-regulated with IL-6. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction and Western blot analyses validated the microarray data and showed the reciprocal expression pattern of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR)-negative regulator DDIT4 in response to PDTC versus IL-6. Cell treatment with PDTC resulted in a rapid and sustained activation of Akt and subsequently blocked the IL-6-mediated increase in mTOR complex 1 function through up-regulation in DDIT4 expression. Conversely, down-regulation of DDIT4 with small interfering RNA dampened the capacity of PDTC to block IL-6-dependent mTOR activation. The overall protein biosynthetic capacity of the cells was severely blunted by IL-6 but increased in a rapamycin-independent pathway by PDTC. These results demonstrate a critical effect of PDTC on mTOR complex 1 function and provide evidence that PDTC can reverse IL-6-related signaling via induction of DDIT4.
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mTOR → IL-6: " Conversely, down-regulation of DDIT4 with small interfering RNA dampened the capacity of PDTC to block IL-6
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