All GENCODE Tracks
All GENCODE transcripts, including comprehensive set and previous version tracks   (All Genes and Gene Predictions tracks)

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All GENCODE VM25  All GENCODE annotations from VM25 (Ensembl 100)  
All GENCODE VM24  All GENCODE annotations from VM24 (Ensembl 99)  
All GENCODE VM22  All GENCODE annotations from VM22 (Ensembl 97)  
All GENCODE VM18  All GENCODE annotations from VM18 (Ensembl 93)  
All GENCODE VM16  All GENCODE annotations from VM16 (Ensembl 91)  
All GENCODE VM14  All GENCODE annotations from VM14 (Ensembl 89)  
GENCODE VM11 (Ensembl 86)  Gene Annotations from ENCODE/GENCODE Version M11 (Ensembl 86)  
GENCODE VM9 (Ensembl 84)  Gene Annotations from ENCODE/GENCODE Version M9 (Ensembl 84)  



The aim of the GENCODE Genes project (Harrow et al., 2006) is to produce a set of highly accurate annotations of evidence-based gene features on the human reference genome. This includes the identification of all protein-coding loci with associated alternative splice variants, non-coding with transcript evidence in the public databases (NCBI/EMBL/DDBJ) and pseudogenes. A high quality set of gene structures is necessary for many research studies such as comparative or evolutionary analyses, or for experimental design and interpretation of the results.

The GENCODE Genes tracks display the high-quality manual annotations merged with evidence-based automated annotations across the entire human genome. The GENCODE gene set presents a full merge between HAVANA manual annotation and Ensembl automatic annotation. Priority is given to the manually curated HAVANA annotation using predicted Ensembl annotations when there are no corresponding manual annotations. With each release, there is an increase in the number of annotations that have undergone manual curation. This annotation was carried out on the GRCm38 (mm10) genome assembly.

Experimental verification details are given in each descriptions for each track.

For more information on the different gene tracks, see our Genes FAQ.

Display Conventions

These are multi-view composite tracks that contain differing data sets (views). Instructions for configuring multi-view tracks are here. Only some subtracks are shown by default. The user can select which subtracks are displayed via the display controls on the track details pages. Further details on display conventions and data interpretation are available in the track descriptions.

Release Notes

GENCODE version M25 corresponds to Ensembl 100.

GENCODE version M20 corresponds to Ensembl 96.

GENCODE version M18 corresponds to Ensembl 93.

GENCODE version M16 corresponds to Ensembl 91.

GENCODE version M14 corresponds to Ensembl 89.

GENCODE version M11 corresponds to Ensembl 86.

GENCODE version M9 corresponds to Ensembl 84.

See also: The GENCODE Project Release History.


This GENCODE release is the result of a collaborative effort among the following laboratories: (contact: GENCODE at the Sanger Institute)

Lab/Institution Contributors
GENCODE Principal Investigator, EMBL European Bioinformatics Institute, Cambridge, UK Paul Flicek
GENCODE Co-Principal Investigator, EMBL European Bioinformatics Institute, Cambridge, UK Adam Frankish
GENCODE Co-Principal Investigator, Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute (WTSI), Cambridge, UK Bronwen Aken
Kings College, London, UK Tim Hubbard
HAVANA manual annotation group, EMBL European Bioinformatics Institute, Cambridge, UK Timothy Cutts, Jyoti Choudhary, Ed Griffiths, Ewan Birney, Jose Manuel Gonzalez, Stephen Fitzgerald, Andrew Berry, Alexandra Bignell, Claire Davidson, Gloria Despacio-Reyes, Mike Kay, Deepa Manthravadi, Gaurab Mukherjee, Gemma Barson, Matt Hardy, Angela Macharia
Ensembl, EMBL European Bioinformatics Institute, Cambridge, UK Carlos Garcia, Fergal Martin, Osagie Izuogu
Centre de Regulació Genòmica (CRG), Barcelona, Spain Roderic Guigó, Julien Lagarde, Barbara Uszczyńska
UC Santa Cruz Genomics Institute, University of California Santa Cruz (UCSC), USA David Haussler, Mark Diekhans, Benedict Paten, Joel Armstrong, Ian Fiddes
Computer Science and Artificial Intelligence Lab,Broad Institute of MIT and Harvard, USA Manolis Kellis, Irwin Jungreis
Computational Biology and Bioinformatics, Yale University (Yale), USA Mark Gerstein, Ekta Khurana, Cristina Sisu, Baikang Pei, Yan Zhang, Mihali Felipe
Center for Integrative Genomics,University of Lausanne, Switzerland Alexandre Reymond, Cedric Howald, Anne-Maud Ferreira, Jacqueline Chrast
Structural Computational Biology Group, Centro Nacional de Investigaciones Oncologicas (CNIO), Madrid, Spain Alfonso Valencia, Michael Tress, José Manuel Rodríguez, Victor de la Torre
Former members of the GENCODE project Jennifer Harrow, James Gilbert, Electra Tapanari, Stephen Searle, Rachel Harte, Daniel Barrell, Felix Kokocinski, Veronika Boychenko, Toby Hunt, Catherine Snow, Gary Saunders, Sarah Grubb, Thomas Derrien, Andrea Tanzer, Gang Fang, Mihali Felipe, Joanne Howes, Reena Halai, Pablo Roman-Garcia, Michael Brent, Randall Brown, Jeltje van Baren


Harrow J, Frankish A, Gonzalez JM, Tapanari E, Diekhans M, Kokocinski F, Aken BL, Barrell D, Zadissa A, Searle S et al. GENCODE: the reference human genome annotation for The ENCODE Project. Genome Res. 2012 Sep;22(9):1760-74. PMID: 22955987; PMC: PMC3431492

Harrow J, Denoeud F, Frankish A, Reymond A, Chen CK, Chrast J, Lagarde J, Gilbert JG, Storey R, Swarbreck D et al. GENCODE: producing a reference annotation for ENCODE. Genome Biol. 2006;7 Suppl 1:S4.1-9. PMID: 16925838; PMC: PMC1810553

A full list of GENCODE publications are available at The GENCODE Project web site.

Data Release Policy

GENCODE data are available for use without restrictions.